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Volume 5. No. 3. - May/Jun 1992 



$4.00 



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I I 







LITTLE ORPHAN EIGHTY 




Though It was a few 
months late, I finally carried 
out my New Years resolution 
for 1992 - 1 quit smokinglli 

Yes. after decades of puff- 
ing away l -2 packs a day, I 
finally saw the light. Or was it 
the cough, along with the 
constant nagging from my 
wife and kids, that did the 
trick? 

Anyway, the long and the 
short of ft is that I quit on 
February 20, 1992. It was just before midnight and I was 
sitting at the Model 4, writing a future article for TRSTimes, 
when I reached in my shirt pocket for a cigarette. DRAT - 
the pack was empty. I crumpled It up and threw It in the 
wastepaper basket, 

I was about to go out to the nearest convenience store 
for replenishment, when I began one of those deep. 
throaty coughs that seems to originate from the stomach, 
and then work Its way up, shaking the whole body as If In 
convulsions, f finally got the message. The heavens 
opened up and a voice boomed out; "Don't do that no 
more'". So, not being one to argue with omens, I quit. 
Instead of going to the store, I shut off the Model 4, took 
a long shower and went to bed. As of this writing, my 
formerly nicotine-stained fingers have not touched a cig- 
arette for exactly 2 months. It's getting easier -- they tell 
me!! 

This month's front page reflects the other kind of agony 
I went through In April. However, I am sure that in this case 
I was not alone. 

Because of a job promotion, a very good friend has left 
the greater Los Angeies area. Previously a devoted TRS- 
80 fan. he Is currently Involved In the IBM side of comput- 
ing, so he offered his collection of TRS-80 hardware and 
software for sale before the move. Roy Beck and I are now 
the proud owners of what is probably one of the largest 
TRS-80 public domain libraries anywhere. As soon as we 
sort out what Is what, we will make this available on a disk 
by disk basis, at a reasonable price, through the pages of 
TRSTimes. Roy. 1 am sure, will make a favorable deal for 
one or more of the hard drives. There are many other 
goodies, we just haven*t had a chance to go through it all 
yet. 

For example, I picked up a great Model 4. It has 256K 
RAM, amber screen, RS hi-res board, the IBM character 
set chip, and 4 internal drives (two double-sided 40 's, one 
5.25 inch double-sided 80, and one - 3,5 inch double- 
sided 80). This Is a great machine, and I am really having 
fun using it. I haven't yet used the extra memory ( I can't 
find the driver). 



worse come to worse, I'll write my own. This 
should prove to be an interesting experience!! 

I really do like working with the 3.5 inch disks. They are 
sturdy, they fit In my shirt pocket and, according to Jim 
King, the very best part Is that there are no sleeves to 
misplace. 

In an earlier issue, this column mentioned that Roy 
Soltoff was thinking about putting the Misosys Quarterly 
to rest. The latest word Is that he WILL continue to publish. 
This is good news, so be sure to get your subscription to 
this essential publication. 

The other news from Misosys is that the combined 
Model I/Ill & 4 LDOS/LS-DOS manual is now available. I 
am ordering my copy as soon as this issue of TRSTimes 
is finished. 



I would like to thank Henry Herrdegen and Chris Fara 
(of Microdex) for taking the time to review DR. PATCH. 
and for saying nice things about my programming effort. 

Wouldn't you know, Henry discovered a minor, but 
Irritating bug. Henry did what my beta-testers failed to do; 
he purposely tried to make the program crash. 

While DR. PATCH did not crash, it did behave strangely 
if it was told to work on a non-DOS disk, it should simply 
have reported that particularfiles were not found, and then 
returned to the menu; instead, an incorrect error message 
is displayed, and the program then returns to the menu. 
However, in the process empty files are written to the 
target disk! 

Though this was not a major goof, It was, nevertheless, 
a goof. I wrote the routine to check for existing files the 
way 1 would in assembler; that is, OPEN thefile and branch 
to an error handler if the file doesn't exist. I forgot - Basic 
doesn'tworkthatway. If youOPENafilethatdoesn't exist, 
Basic CREATES it. Thus, an empty file is written to the 
target disk. 

Thanks Henry, because of you, DR. PATCH is now up 
to version 1 .2. 

Owners of version 1.1 should send the original DR. 
PATCH disk to TRSTimes; we will send the upgrade by 
return mall. Ah yes, the trials and tribulations of a software 
author!! ! 

Before bringing this column to a close, I would like to 
thank the other important people whose contributions 
made this issue possible - Roy Beck, Jack Nock, Mike 
Ecker, Jim King, Frank Gottschalk, M.C. Matthews, Karl 
Mohr, and Allen Jacobs - with this kind of help, being editor 
is easy. 

And now, on to the business at hand 

Welcome to TRSTimes 5.3 



TRSTimes magazine 

Volume 5. No. 3. - May/Jun 1992 



PUBLISHER-EDITOR 

Lance WoUtrup 

COhfTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Roy Beck 

Dn Allen Jacobs 

Dr. Michael W. Ecker 

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE 

San Gabriel Tandy Users Group 

Valley TRS-80 Users Group 

Valley Hackers' TRS-80 Users 

Group 

TRSTimes niaga2ine is published 
bi-monthly by TRSTimes Publica- 
tions. 5721 Topanga Canyon Blvd, 
Suite 4. Woodland Hills, CA. 
91364. (818) 716-7154. 
Publication months are January, 
March* May, July, September and 
November. 

Entire contents [cj copyright 1992 
by TRSTimes publications. 
No part of this publication may be 
reprinted or reproduced by any 
means without the prior written 
permission from the publishers. 
All programs are published for 
personal use only. All rights re- 
served. 

1992 subscription rates (6 issues): 
UNITED STATES & CANADA: 
$20.00 (U.S. currency) 
EUROPE, CENTRAL & SOUTH 
AMERICA: $24.00 for surface 
mail or $31.00 for air mail. 
(U.S. currency only) 
ASIA, AUSTRALIA & NEW 
ZEALAND: $26.00 for surface 
maile or $34.00 for air mail. 
(U.S. currency only) 
Article submissions from our read- 
ers are welcomed and encouraged. 
Anything pertaining to the TRS-80 
will be evaluated for possible pub- 
lication. Please send hardcopy and, 
if at all possible, a disk with the 
material saved in ASCII format. 
Any disk format is acceptable, but 
please note on label which format 
is used. 



LITTLE ORPHAN EIGHTY 2 

Editorial 

THE MAIL ROOM 4 

Reader mail 

UNDERSTANDING THE 

FLOPPY DISK NUMBERS GAME 5 

Roy T. Beck 

CHECKBOOK 9 

J. R. Nock 

REC: FINDING THE NEXT NUMBER 12 

Dr. Michael W. Ecker 

HINTS & TIPS 15 

King, Gottschalk, Wolstrup, Beck, Vault 

CHECKING OUT DR. PATCH 18 

Review by Henry H. Herrdegen 

DR. PATCH REVIEWED 20 

Review by Chris Fara 

CITIZEN SETUP 22 

M.C. Matthews 

FLOPPY DISK 

READAVRITE TECHNOLOGY 24 

Karl Mohr 

NOTES ON VISICALC 26 

Jim E. King 

DIRECT FROM CHRIS 28 

Review by Allen Jacobs 



THE 

MAIL 

ROOM 




BOOT-UP SCREEN 

If you are sitting around your office and developing 
another case of "writer's block", how about coming up with 
a nice boot screen for LS-DOS 6.3.1 II 

Mickey Mepham 

Charles City, VA 

Someone did develop a very nice screen for LS-DOS 
6.3.0. Unfortunateiy, it doesn't worl< witii version 6.3.1. 
Wfien ttie dust settles around here, I will take a looii and 
see If I can convert It to work with 6.3. 1. 

Ed. 

DR. PATCH 

The mailman dropped off my DR. PATCH disk earlier 
today, and I thought I'd let you know how pleased I am 
with the program. It is easy to use and most of the patches 
are of great help to me; especially the password removers 
and the 'KILL' command. I also have fun making different 
DOS prompts. Keep up the good work. 

Duane T. Walker 

Anderson, IN 

Thank you, Duane. Your nice words are much appre- 
ciated. 

Ed. 

MORE ON MODEMS 

This letter Is In reaction to an article by Paul Abernathy 
in the January/February issue about hooking up a 
modem. It was OK as far as it went, but for the most part 
I think the article stopped short in terms of what the 
would-be modem user really needs to know to get started, 
and why he would want to. 

Abernathy concluded that all the modem owner needs 
to do after hooking It up is choose his favorite software. 
But how can he know what his favorite software is, and 
how does know what he wants to do with it? 

What follows almost could be an article offered for 
publication rather than a letter, except my knowledge of 
all the communication packages available for the Model 4 



is limited. I can't compare them; all I can tell you are my 
experiences. 

I was put off from using a modem for years by the 
intimidating comm packages that came bundled with 
TRSDOS, LDOS and LS-DOS, and it wasn't until I discov- 
ered XT4, available on public domain disks, and its ability 
to interface with the Hayes command set of today's mo- 
dems, that communications became something I could 
understand. Numbers to call are all in a directory that 
keeps track of technical settings and passwords, so that 
I don't have to. XT4 dials the numbers for me. The tap of 
one key opens RAM's capture buffer to collect text coming 
to me, or instructs the printer to copy everything that 
comes onto the screen, or permits uploadinug or 
downloading of a disk file. 

So what do I do with a modem, which I've had for only 
a few months although our household has had a TRS-80 
since 1985. 

First, the family joined GEnie, which for $4.95 a month 
is a treasure trove of information and consumer services. 
Its on-line encyclopedia is updated every three months, 
making it better than a $1 ,000 set in a bookshelf that day 
by day grows ever more obsolete. Or we can track our 
investments. Or we can rap with people in the fields of 
religion or electronics or genealogy of pets or any other 
special interest. We can write a letter to anyone in the 
country ~ or Canada ~ who subscribes to GEnie. I can 
download TRS-80 software. It was my participation in a 
GEnie conference with you that convinced me to begin a 
subscription to TRSTimes. 

Then I started contacting local bulletin board systems. 
Most are free. Many are IBM-oriented, but others are more 
general. One board I now use regularly is for freelance 
writers who share and critique each others' work. Another, 
a really super BBS, offers 260 Interest categories, ranging 
from a host a medical topics to the TRS-80 national echo, 
which is a party line of TRS-80 users. Or I can send my 
thoughts along to talk show host Rush Limbaugh. That 
board costs $25 a year, but it's worth it to me because it 
also offers communication services to anyone in the world 
who has a computer that can tie into a BBS, at no addi- 
tional cost. 

The main purpose of this letter is to ask TRSTimes 
readers to look beyond the nuts and bolts of hooking up 
a modem and see how a modem can help ensure that the 
Model 4 will continue to be a useful machine for years to 
come. 

As a matter of fact, I'd like to see more articles on how 
we TRSTimes readers use our TRS-80s. 

Henry Blumenthal 

Jacksonville, FL 

It seems we both listen to the EIB network, so to you 
and Rush, I say: Mega Dittoes from the Left Coast. 

Your point Is well taken. It would be interesting to find 
out how the average TRS-80 fan uses his/her machine. 
How about it out there!! Write to TRSTimes. 

Ed 



Page 4 



TRSTimes magazine 5.3 - May/Jun 1992 



UNDERSTANDING THE 
FLOPPY DISK NUMBERS GAME 

By Roy T. Beck 




I have long been mysti- 
fied by some aspects of the 
numbers designating the 
size of some floppy drives, 
especially the 1 .2 and 1 .4 
Meg varieties. Recently I 
tool< pencil to paper and 
worked out some tables to 
organize all that I knew 
about various drives. That 
may explain why the tables 
are so small! 

As with many other as- 
pects of this fascinating hobby of ours, today's standards 
are the result of both arbitrary decisions, design expedi- 
ents, and the continuing advance of technology. 



HISTORY OF THE FLOPPY DRIVE 

The earliest floppies were the 8" variety, and the stan- 
dard of the time was set by Digital Research of CP/M fame. 
Their 8" floppy used what is now known as Single Density 
encoding, using frequency modulation (FM) to put bits on 
the disk. Their scheme (I don't know whether they origi- 
nated it or not) used two successive pulse positions along 
a track to form each bit position. The first pulse was always 
recorded. If a zero was to be recorded, then only the index 
pulse went on the disk, followed by a time gap where the 
other bit was omitted. If a one was to be recorded, then 
both pulses were recorded. If a continuous string of ze- 
roes was recorded, then only the index pulses were re- 
corded; if a continuous string of ones was recorded, then 
a pulse was recorded in each bit position. If the string of 
zero pulses are timed, they will appear at a certain rate. If 
the string of one pulses are timed they will appear at 
double the rate of the zeroes. This two to one ratio of 
pulses can be viewed as a modulation of frequencies, 
hence the encoding system was known as "FM". 



ENTER THE 5.25" FLOPPY 

The same encoding scheme (FM) was applied to 5.25" 
floppies when these came along. The original 5.25" disks 
had only 35 tracks. The first effort to increase the capacity 
of the 5.25 disks was to increase the track count from 35 
to 40. In the interests of upward compatibility, the outer 
35 tracks were kept in the same location and the additional 
tracks were added near the hub of the disk. This was fine 



for compatibility, as new drives could easily read either 35 
tracks or 40 tracks, and the diskettes were not altered. But 
naturally, there had to be a fly in the ointment. Bit shift, to 
be exact! It seems that if you record two magnetic pulses 
very close together on a track, the darn things physically 
crawl towards each other, which then upsets the time 
spacing on playback. Don't ask me why this happens, I 
haven't the foggiest; but it does happen. To further aggra- 
vate the problem, Radio Shack In their "wisdom" omitted 
the known "fix" for the bit shift problem when they de- 
signed their Model I floppy disk controller system. Appar- 
ently the 35 track system was marginal to begin with, and 
40 tracks was just about impossible due to the increased 
bit shift as the pulses in the tracks became ever more 
closely spaced at the higher track numbers. 

Percom to the rescue! I don't know if they were first, or 
even if they were the only one to offer a fix for the bit shift 
problem, but they offered a data separator for single 
density users which, in my case, solved the problem. 40 
tracks became reliable. 

Table 1 summarizes the various TRS disk configura- 
tions and Table 2 shows the corresponding IBM informa- 
tion. 

Table 1 - TRS Configurations 

Size Trks Sides Dens Sect Bytes KB/sec RPM Capacity 



90K 35 


1 


Sgl 


10 


256 


250 


300 


89,600 


100K 40 


1 


Sgl 


10 


256 


250 


300 


102,400 


180K 40 


1 


Dbl 


18 


256 


250 


300 


184,320 


360K 40 


2 


Dbl 


36 


256 


250 


300 


368,640 


720K 80 


2 


Dbl 


36 


256 


250 


300 


737,280 


720K* 80 


2 


Dbl 


36 


256 


250 


300 


737,280 



* 3.5" floppy 

Table 2 - IBM Configurations 

Size Trks Sides Dens Sect Bytes KB/sec RPM Capacity 



160K 40 


1 


Dbl 


8 


512 


250 


300 


163,840 


180K 40 


1 


Dbl 


9 


512 


250 


300 


184,320 


360K 40 


2 


Dbl 


18 


512 


250 


300 


368,640 


800K#40 


2 


Dbl 


20 


512 


250 


300 


819,200 


1.2M 80 


2 


Dbl 


15 


512 


500 


360 


1,228,800 


1.4M*80 


2 


Dbl 


36 


512 


500 


300 


1 ,474,560 



# Homebrew configuration by NATGUG, not an IBM 
standard! 

* 3.5" floppy 



TRSTimes magazine 5.3 - May/Jun 1992 



Page 5 



DOUBLE DENSITY 

Continuing witii tlie floppy disk story. Mucin later, the 
"double density" system came along. This system could 
put twice as much data in the same track space by using 
a different encoding scheme. I'll not try to explain it in 
words, pictures would be necessary. Since it was a mod- 
ification of the previous single density, frequency modu- 
lation scheme, the new scheme was identified as 
"modified frequency modulation", or MFM. MFM actually 
did double the amount of data in a given distance along 
the track, but the requirement for additional header space 
along the track restricted the net gain to 80% over FM 
recording. Still 180% of what could previously be put on 
a disk was a dandy improvement. 

The MFM encoding system was even more sensitive to 
bit shift, so the density doubler boards designed by sev- 
eral aftermarket groups incorporated the necessary data 
separator, and double density operation was solid and 
reliable from the beginning, and continues so today. Of 
course, when RS came out with a competing double 
density adapter for the Model I, they did it differently than 
the aftermarket de facto standard, and suddenly we had 
two double density protocols to contend with. The after- 
market DOS authors solved the problem by incorporating 
some code to determine which doubler (if any) was in your 
machine, and to then select the appropriate code to read 
and write with your doubler. Radio Shack was then about 
to bring out the Model III, and so their net contribution to 
the density doubling story was two more versions of the 
Model I DOS, those being TRSDOS 2.7DD and 2.8DD. I 
have never used either of them, but have been told they 
were really forerunners of TRSDOS for the Model III. 
Apparently little if any programs were offered by RS to use 
these DOSes, and they quickly became only historical 
curiousities, as the aftermarket DOSes were in control in 
the Model I marketplace and TRSDOS 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, and 
1.3 became the RS Model III offerings. 



THE TRS-80 MODEL ill 

The Model III TRSDOS series had a serious failing in 
that it could only read SS drives; even with DS drives 
installed, it apparently could not be patched to operate 
DS. This problem was tackled by another man (Gary 
Campbell), and his efforts produced TRSDOS 1.4 and 
finally SYSTEM 1.5 as aftermarket products. SYSTEM 1.5 
is currently available through TRSTimes. These could 
handle DS drives alright, but only in a somewhat strange 
mode. The second sides of the drives can be written to 
and read, but only with separate logical drive numbers. 
That is, the back side of a drive gets a different number 
than the front. Note carefully, the disk is not a flippy. It can 
only be inserted in the drive one way, and in that position 
both sides can be read, but only as two different logical 
drives. If the disk is inserted wrong side to, neither side 



can be read. The drawback of this scheme is that the data 
on the backside cannot be read on a SS drive. The other 
person must have a similar two sided drive and SYSTEM 
1 .5 on his system. SYSTEM 1 .5 is quite a respectable DOS, 
except for the method of handling DS disks and the fact 
that it cannot handle a hard drive. 

MODEL III TRSDOS has another curious feature. The 
tracks are numbered from to 39 as is usual, but the 
sectors are numbered from 1 to 1 8. There are no sector 
O's on the disks! 

The ever present desire for larger storage capacity lead 
to 80 track drives, with double density and double sided 
operation. This combination used to be known as "quad 
density", on the basis that it held four times the amount of 
data that a SS SD disk could hold; 720K vs 1 80K. 



IBM'S EFFORTS 

IBM's first floppy drive for the PC was a curiousity by 
present standards. It was 5.25", single sided, with eight 
sectors of 512 bytes each. Why eight and not nine? Gee, 
I dunno! A little later, IBM changed to nine sectors per 
track and about the same time went to double sided 
operation. They kept the eight and nine sector capability 
for compatibility, but the 360K, 40 track, DS, DD disk 
immediately became the standard for the PC. 



HIGH DENSITY FLOPPIES 

Next came some developments by IBM. Big Blue 
wanted more space on floppies, and they looked to see 
what could be done with the 5.25" floppy. They reasoned 
that if they could record more data per track, they could 
increase the total capacity of the disk. Their efforts re- 
sulted in a doubling of the data rate fed to a disk. Where 
all previous disks and controllers had handled data at 250 
kilobits per second, IBM doubled this to 500 KB. This by 
itself should have allowed twice as many sectors per track, 
for a straightforward doubling of the data capacity of a 
5.25 floppy. This would allow recording of 1.44 Megs on 
an 80 track, DS, DD 5.25" disk. For whatever reason, (I 
don't know). IBM decided this doubling of the bit rate was 
pushing the state of the art a little too hard. (IBM is a 
conservative outfit). To reduce the bit density on the disk, 
they increased the rotational speed of the disk somewhat, 
which had the effect of decreasing the bit density, mea- 
sured along the track. They decided to increase the speed 
from 300 RPM to 360 RPM, which made the bit density 
300/360 or 5/6 of the value achieved by doubling the bit 
rate. So, 5/6 of 2 equals 1-2/3 of the 720K capacity, for a 
new value of 1 200K, or 1 .2 Meg. The new. improved media 
required for this mode is the High Density floppy. 

This is really only part of the explanation of what is 
going on in the 1.2 Meg drives. There is more there than 



Page 6 



TRSTimes magazine 5.3 - May/Jun 1992 



meets the eye, and I will delve deeper In a later paragraph. 
For the moment, just accept the 1.2 Meg floppy as the 
apparent end of the line In IBM's development of the 5.25" 
floppy. 



NATGUG'S DEVELOPMENTS 

ATRS and IBM user group in England called NATGUG 
(the explanation for that name is too long and dull to 
pursue here) has even worked out a scheme to put 800K 
on a 720K floppy. Their trick Is to put 10 sectors of 512 
bytes on the floppy, giving an 800K floppy. It requires 
specially written floppy drivers to function, and to me 
seems like a lot of effort for little profit, as the format is not 
supported by IBM, and Interchangeability is limited to 
those who have the required drivers. It is probably only 
worth while to those lacking hard drives, which are rather 
expensive over there. I believe the 800K format is mostly 
a demonstration that it can be done, but is not widely used. 



THE 3.5" SHIRT POCKET FLOPPY 

Another interesting development was the introduction 
of the 3.5" drive. Actually, several competing companies 
introduced similar disks about the same time, their goals 
being smaller size and better protection for the disks. The 
present 3.5" disk is the result of the shakeout among the 
several competing designs. The 3.5" disk Is normally an 
80 track, DS, DD format, used by almost all computer 
manufacturers. The 3.5" drive was never used by Tandy 
on the Model I, III, 4 family, but the 3.5" drive can be driven 
by our TBS FDC's with no trouble. I have even set up a 
Model I booting NEWDOS 80 V.2 from a 3.5" drive, just to 
see if It would work. It did, with no difficulty. 



THE HIGH DENSITY 3.5" FLOPPY 

The pressure for more capacity is never ending. IBM 
(and others) next looked at the 3.5" disk. The 3.5 was really 
an 80 track, DS, DD disk, with identical characteristics to 
the 720K floppy. IBM decided to apply the 500 kilobit per 
second rate to the 3.5 with the best available media, and 
discovered it could be made to work. I can only guess the 
reason they could double the bit density on the 3.5 and 
could not quite double it on the 720K floppy must be due 
to improvements in the quality of the floppy media during 
that time period. The High Density 3.5" floppy is necessary 
for this operation. In any event, the 3.5" format could 
handle an 80 track, DS, DD format at 500 kb, which 
increased the capacity to 1440K, or 1.4 Meg. WOW! 

Note that this development, over approximately 10 
years, increased the 5.25" floppy of 35 tracks, SS, SD of 
90 K to 40 tracks, DS. DD with 1200K. That Is more than 
1 3 times the original disk's capacity. An excellent example 



of development! And of course, the 3.5" floppy went to 
1440 K, about 16 times the original. 

I won't go into hard drive development, that deserves 
an article all its own, and I may try to write that another 
time. 



MORE ON THE 1.2 MEG FLOPPY 

Now let's see what else is going on in that 1 .2 Meg drive. 
Remember, the drive is an 80 track drive, and has heads 
of the width appropriate to that standard, which is 96 
tracks per Inch, or 96 tpl. 40 track drives had only half or 
48 tpi because their heads were wider. 

Some of the TRS DOSes have provision for "double 
stepping" an 80 track drive so It could read 40 track disks. 
Since the heads in the 80 track drive are much narrower 
than the 40 track heads, the 80 track could easily and 
reliably read a 40 track disk previously written by a 40 track 
drive. However, writing on a 40 track disk with the narrow 
heads of an 80 track drive is an invitation to trouble. The 
narrow 80 track head cannot erase the full width of the 
track laid down by the 40 track head, and so you get a 
track on the disk analogous to a three lane highway. The 
"center lane" is the good data written by the 80 track head, 
and the two "outer lanes" contain leftover data placed by 
the original 40 track head. In this situation, an 80 track 
drive can read and write successfully. 

However, If the disk is moved to another 80 track drive 
which is aligned slightly differently, the head of the second 
drive may try to read and write most of the "center lane" 
plus a strip of one of the "outer lanes", which can produce 
data errors. A still worse situation occurs if the disk written 
by the 80 track head is moved to a 40 track drive. Now the 
40 track head Is obliged to try to read the "center lane" 
with valid data plus the two "outer lanes" containing old 
data. The result will certainly be trouble. 

IBM Is well aware of this situation, but still felt obliged 
to allow their (80 track) 1.2 Meg drive to read and write, 
but not format, a 360K floppy. This provides upward 
compatibility from the original PC to the later machines. 
But the 1.2 Meg drive became rather schizoid in Its oper- 
ations. If it Is to read and write on a 360K (40 track) floppy. 
It must be capable of the double stepping trick. Rather 
than do this In software, ala TRS, IBM provided another 
signal line between their 1 .2 Meg floppy disk controller 
(FDC) and their 1 .2 Meg drive. This line can be controlled 
by the FDC to tell the drive when to single step (80 tracks) 
and when to double step (40 tracks). 

An additional fly in the ointment is the rotational speed, 
300 RPM for the 360K disk vs 360 RPM for the 1.2 Meg 
disk. Still another control line had to be provided between 
the FDC and the drive. 



TRSTimes magazine 5.3 - May/Jun 1992 



Page? 



The final discrepancy is tlie data rate. This was handled 
purely in the FDC, which can be commanded to send 
250KB data or 500KB data to the drive. The drive neither 
knows nor cares what the data rate is. 

And this is not the end of the features in the 1 .2 Meg 
drive. Ask me some time about line 34, the ChangeLine, 
and the XT/AT jumper! But that is for another article 
another day. 



1.2 MEGS IN AIRS? 

Why would anyone In the TRS world care about the 
quirks of this 1.2 Meg IBM drive? Consider. The drive 
inherently has the capability of reading and writing 80 
tracks at 300 RPM, which is the format of our TRS 720K 
disks. IBM does not support the 720K format, but the 1.2 
Meg drive can do it! Some Australians have done it, and 
reported in various newsletters of their success. This 
allows them to buy readily available IBM 1.2 Meg drives 
and use them where scarce, practically unavailable 80 



track 720K drives are needed. And we can do it, too. I 
notice that IBM 1.2 Meg drives are going for around $55 
each, which is not a bad price, compared to 720K drives 
at around $90! 

The Australians worked out jumper settings for several 
different drives which in essence locked the two lines 
controlling RPM and single/double stepping into the 300 
RPM and single stepping mode. Having accomplished 
this, the drives could then be driven at 250 KB by our 
normal TRS FDC's, and 80 track drives are now readily 
available from the IBM parts bins. How to install and 
correctly jumper a 1 .2 Meg IBM drive In a TRS will be easy, 
once the jumpering Is sorted out and published. Since I 
have only second hand reports on only two Panasonic 
drives to work from, I will defer this task to a future article, 
when I get "a round tuit". 

Meantime, file this article in your collection, it may be 
useful in dealing with "strange" (IBM) drives. 



TIRED OF SLOPPY DISK LABELS? 
TIRED OF NOT KNOWING WHAT'S ON YOUR DISK? 

YOU NEED 'DL' 

'DL' will automatically read your TRSDOS6/LDOS compatible disk 

and then print a neat label, listing the visible files (maximum 16). 

You may use the 'change' feature to select (or reject) the filenames to print. 

You may even change the diskname and diskdate. 

'DL' is written in 100% Z-80 machine code for efficiency and speed. 

Don't be without it - order your copy today. 

'DL' is available for TRS-SO Model 4/4P/4D 

using TRSDOS 6.2/LS-DOS 6.3,0 & 6,3.1. 

with either an Epson compatible or DMP series printer. 

'DL' for Model 4 only $9.95 

TRSTimes magazine - Dept. 'DL' 
5721 Topanga Canyon Blvd. #4 
Woodland Hills, CA 91367 



Page 8 



TRSTimes magazine 5.3 - May/Jun 1992 



Checkbook 

Model in - Basic 

By J. R. Nock 




This Is a BASIC program 
for the Model III that I have 
used for years to help keep 
my check book balanced. 
Entries can be made as 
often as you like, to check 
the arithmetic. At the month 
end the bank's balance and 
the cancelled checks are 
entered and compared to 
your input. 



The outstanding checks and the balance are stored to 
disk, and optionally can be printed out. The input out- 
standing checks are saved to a separate file for emer- 
gency recovery if the file is wiped out by accident. 

A special subroutine is used for keyboard input. It 
checks for numbers or characters, and indicates the 
space available in each input field. 

1 REM- PROGRAM CHECK - CHECK BOOK 

BALANCER STORES OUTSTANDING CHECKS ON 

DISK:0- J. R. Nock, 1992 

5 CLEAR 8000 

10DEFINTI-N 

19K = 150 

20 DIM A$(K). NO(K). IDATE(K), AMT(K) 

30 Tl$ = "check # date payee amount 
balance" 

31 TJ$ = "check # date payee amount" 
95 C$ = "$$## ###.##-" 

100 CLSiPRINT @ 15,"*** CHECK BOOK BALANCER - 

MAYBE ***":PRINT 

205 REM: RETURN IF INPUT INCORRECT 

210 CLS:PRINT @ 0," IF THIS IS THE FIRST USE OF 

THE PROGRAM, ENTER YOUR BALANCE AT THE 

START OF THE PERIOD": PRINT 

220 PRINT " OTHERWISE JUST PRESS 'ENTER'": 

230 FL=-9:G0SUB 32100: BAL#=VAL(IN$) 

240 PRINT: PRINT "NOW ENTER THE FINAL BANK 

BALANCE FOR THE PERIOD ";: FL=-9:G0SUB 32100: 

BBAL# = VAL(IN$):PRINT 

250PRINT:PRINT "CHECK THE BALANCES ENTERED 

CAREFULLY." 

251 PRINT:PRINT"ARE THEY ALL CORRECT (Y/N) ? ";: 

FL = 1:GOSUB32100:IFIN$ < >"Y" THEN 205 

260 B# = BBAL# 

300 IF BAL#= GOTO 1000 

320 GOTO 1500: REM ** THIS IS FOR THE FIRST 

TIME RUN ONLY 



1000 REM ** NORMAL RUN - READ THE PREVIOUS 

MONTHS CHECKS ** 

1005 PRINT:PRINT "DISK SHOULD BE RUNNING" 

1010 1=0: OPEN "r',1,"CHEX/TXT:0" 

1020 INPUT #1. IDATE(I), NO(l), AMT(I), A$(l): 

IF IDATE(l) = THEN 1040 

1030 IF E0F(1) THEN 1040 ELSE 

PRINT NO(l). IDATE(I). A$(l). AMT(I): 

1 = 1 -t-1: GOTO 1020 

1040 BAL# = AMT(I): CLOSE 1 : 

PRINT "BALANCE FROM DISK= ";USING C$;BAL# 

1050 PRINT "PRESS ENTER TO CONTINUE ";: 

FL = 1:G0SUB 32100 

1500 REM ** READ FROM DISK DONE - GET CHECK 

BOOK DATA ** 

1550 CLS 

1551 PRINT @0,"": 

PRINT TAB(20) "*** CHECK BOOK ENTRIES ***": 

PRINT "FOR DEPOSITS MAKE CHECK # = 0" 

1554 PRINT "ENTER CHECK # '-1' TO DELETE THE 

LAST ENTRY. '9999' TO FINISH" 

1560 PRINT@256,TI$: 'PRINT A COLUMN TITLE 

1600PRINT@576.TJ$ 

1602 PRINT@640,"";:FL = -4:GOSUB 32100: 

E = VAL(IN$):IFE<OTHEN 1605 ELSE 

IF E = 9999 THEN 1608 ELSE NO(l) = E: 

GOTO 1606 

1604 IF E<0 THEN 1605 ELSE IF E< 101 THEN 1602 

ELSEIDATE(I) = E: 

GOTO 1606 

16051 = 1-1 :BAL# = BAL#-AMT(I): 

PRINT@448,CHR$(255): GOTO 1602 

1606 PRINT@652,"";:FL = -4:GOSUB 32100: 

E=VAL(IN$):IFE< OTHEN 1606 

ELSE IF E< 101 THEN 1606 

ELSE IDATE(I) = E: GOTO 1610 

1608 PRINT@768."DID YOU ENTER BANK CHARGE, 
ANY AUTOMATIC WITHDRAWALS, INTEREST?": 
PRINT @832," (Y/N)?";: 

FL=1:G0SUB 32100: 
PRINT @768,CHR$(255): 
PRINT@832,CHR$(255) 

1609 IF IN$ = "Y" THEN 1700 ELSE 1602 
1610PRINT@662,"";:FL = 10:GOSUB32100:A$(I) = IN$ 
1611 PRINT@684,"";:FL = -9:GOSUB 32100: 
AMT(I)=VAL(IN$):IFAMT(I)< .005 THEN 1611 
1617IFI<1 GOTO 1645 

1620 PRINT@384,CHR$(255):PRINT @ 384,NO(l-1): 

PRINT @395,IDATE(I-1) 

1630 PRINT @ 405, A$(l-1): PRINT @ 423.""; : 

PRINT USING C$;AMT(I-1) 

1645 IF NO(l) > 9998 GOTO 1650: 

REM* NO PRINT ON FIRST INPUT 

1646IFN0(I) > OTHEN AMT(I) = -AMT(I) 

1647BAL#= BAL# + AMT(I) 

1650 PRINT@448.CHR$(255): 

PRINT @448,NO(l): 

PRINT @ 459,IDATE(I) 



TRSTimes magazine 5.3 - May/Jun 1992 



Page 9 



1660 PRINT @ 469, A$(l): PRINT @ 487,""; 

1661 PRINT USING C$; AMT(I) 

1670 PRINT® 500,""; 

1671 PRINT USING C$; BAL# 

1675 IF NO(l) > 9998 THEN 1700 

1676 IF I < 1 48 THEN 1 685 ELSE 
PRINT"*** ARRAY IS FULL ***": 
GOTO 1700 

1685I=I + 1:PRINT@576." ": 

FORX= 1 TO 4: PRINT" ": 

NEXT X:G0T01 600 

1700 REM *** FINISHED WITHTHE STUBS - NOW 

READ THE CANCELLED CHECKS 

1800 CLS 

1810 PRINT @ 20,"*** CANCELLED CHECKS ***": 

PRINT "FOR DEPOSITS MAKE CHECK # = 0" 

1820 PRINP'ENTER DATE 9999 TO SHOW ALL 

CHECKS ARE ENTERED" 

1830PRINT@256,TJ$ 

1850PRINT@576,TJ$ 

1855 PRINT @640,CHR$(255):PRINT@640."";: 
FL = -4:G0SUB 32100: 

K = VAL(IN$): 

IF K> 9998 THEN 1870 

1856 PRINT@650,"";:FL = -4:GOSUB 32100: 
J = VAL(IN$):IFJ<OTHEN 1856 

1858 PRINT@680,"";:FL = -9:GOSUB 32100: 
B=VAL(IN$):IF B<1 THEN 1855 ELSE 1900 

1870 PRINT@768,"DID YOU REMEMBERTO ENTER 
THE DEPOSITS, TRANSFERS, INTERESTINTERBANK 
(IB) TRANSACTIONS (Y/N) ?";:FL = 1: 

GOSUB 32100: 

PRINT@768,CHR$(255): 

PRINT@832,CHR$(255) 

1871 IF IN$ = "Y"THEN 2100 ELSE 1855 

1890 REM *** COMPARE ENTRY WITH SAVED 

CHECK STUBS 

1900 FOR L = TO 1-1 

1910 IF K< > NO(L) GOTO 2050 

1920 IF J <> IDATE(L) GOTO 2050 

1930 IF K>0 AND (ABS(AMT(L) + B)) > 0.003 

THEN 2050 

1940 IF K = AND (ABS(AMT(L)-B)) > 0.003 THEN 2050 

1950 PRINT@384,CHR$(255):PRINT @ 384, IDATE(L) 

1951 PRINT® 395,NO(L) 

1960 PRINT @ 405, A$(L): PRINT @ 423.""; : 

PRINT USING C$; AMT(L) 

1970 PRINT @448.STRING$(63," "): 

PRINT@458."STUB AGREES WITH CANCELLED 

CHECK' 

1980IDATE(L)= -IDATE(L) 

1990 GOTO 1855 

2050 NEXT L: 

PRINT@384,"*** THE STUB DATA DOES NOT AGREE - 

PRESS ENTER TO TRY AGAIN **": 

PRINT " OR ENTER '9' TO GO BACK TO THE CHECK 

STUBS";:FL = -1:GOSUB32100:J=VAL(IN$): 

IF J = 9 THEN 1550 



2090 GOTO 1800 

2100 REM ** PRINT OUT OUTSTANDING CHECKS ** 

2110 CLS: 

PRINT ® 15," OUTSTANDING DATA " 

2121 PRINT® 128," DATE": 
PRINT ®137,"CHECK#": 
PRINT @152,"PAY TO": 
PRINT® 172."AMOUNP': 
PRINT®185,"KEY#" 

2122 JN = 1: 
FORL=0TOI-1: 
IFIDATE(L) <0 GOTO 2150 
2125BBAL#= BBAL# + AMT(L) 

2130 PRINT IDATE(L);TAB(11) NO(L); TAB(21) A$(L); 
TAB(39) ""; 

2139 PRINT USING C$; AMT(L); 

2140 PRINT TAB(58)L 
2145JN = JN + 1: 

IFJN <>10 GOTO 2150 

2146 PRINT "TO CONTINUE THE LISTING PRESS 

'ENTER'";: 

FL = 0:GOSUB 32100: 

JN = 1:PRINT 

2150 NEXT L 

2160 PRINT" -YOUR BALANCE = "; 

2161 PRINT USING C$; BAL# 

2163 PRINT " - BANK BALANCE = "; 

2164 PRINT USING C$; BBAL# 
2166PRINT" - DIFFERENCE= "; 
2167 PRINT USING C$; BBAL# - BAL#: 
PRINT " PRESS 'ENTER' TO CONTINUE ";: 
FL=0:GOSUB 32100 

2169 CLS:PRINT " OPTIONS:" : PRINT 

2170 PRINT "< > RECORD THE OUTSTANDING 
CHECKS TO DISK< 1 > RETURN TO CORRECT THE 
CHECK BOOK STUBS < 2 > RETURN TO CORRECT 
THE CANCELLED CHECKS OR DEPOSITS < 3 > RE- 
PEAT THE 

2171 PRINT"<4> LIST THE OUTSTANDING CHECKS 
ON THE PRINTER ( READY IT":PRINT"< 5 > DELETE 
A BAD CHECK STUB ENTRY < 6 > END THE JOB (BE 
SURE YOU HAVE SAVED TO DISK!)":PRINT: 

PRINT "YOUR CHOICE ? "; 

2172FL = -1: GOSUB 32100: E = VAL(IN$): 

IF E>6 THEN 2172 

2173 ON E-f- 1 GOTO 2200, 2174, 2174, 2174, 2700, 
2180,2500 

2174 BBAL# = B#: ON E + 1 GOTO 2200, 1 550, 1 800, 
2110,2700,2180,2500,2500 

2176 REM DELETE BAD ENTRY IN CHECK BOOK 

2180 CLS:PRINT" WHAT IS THE BAD ENTRY KEY 
NUMBER? ";:FL=-3: 

GOSUB 32100: E=VAL(IN$) 

2181 PRINT:PRINT:PRINTNO(E); 

2182 PRINT TAB(II) IDATE(E); 

2183 PRINT TAB(21)A$(E); 

2184 PRINT TAB(39)""; 

2185 PRINT USING C$; AMT(E); 



Page 10 



TRSTimes magazine 5.3 - May/Jun 1992 



2186 PRINT TAB(58) E: PRINT "IS THIS THE ENTRY TO 
DELETE? (Y/N) "; 
2187FL=1:GOSUB32100:IFIN$ = "Y"THEN2196 

ELSE 2169 

2195IFXO9G0T0 2169 

2196IDATE(E) = -IDATE(E): BAL# = BAL# - AMT(E): 

GOTO 2169 

2200 CLS: REM * STORE OUTSTANDING CHECKS ON 

DISK1 

2210 OPEN "O",1."CHEX/TXT:0" 

2335 JN = 

233919= 1-1 :Y$ = "*" 

2340 FOR L = TO 19: IF IDATE(L) < GOTO 2400 

2350 PRINT'OUTPUT TO DISK "; IDATE(L); NO(L); 

A$(L): AMT(L) 

2360 PRINT #1. IDATE(L); NO(L); AMT(L); A$(L) 

2400 NEXT L 

2410 V = BBAL#: PRINT #1.0; 0; V; "BALANCE" 

2420 CLOSE 1 

2430 GOTO 2169 

2500 CLSiPRINT: 

PRINT 'THAT SHOULD BE ALL FOR THIS MONTH" 

2510 PRINT "WASN'T THAT FUN !!!" 

2520 PRINT "SEE YOU IN 30 DAYS" 

2600 END 

2700 REM * LIST ON PRINTER 

2705 IF PEEK(14312) = 63 THEN 2710 ELSE PRINT: 

PRINT"** PRINTER IS NOT READY - ENTER T TO 

TRY AGAIN, 'N' TO SKIP':PRINT" ENTER (Y/N) ": 

FL=1:G0SUB 32100: 

IF IN$ = "N" THEN 2169 ELSE 2705 

2710 LPRINT " OUTSTANDING CHECKS "; 

LEFT$(TIME$,8): FOR L = 0TO 1-1: 

IF IDATE(L)<0 THEN 2750 

2720 LPRINT IDATE(L);TAB(11) N0(L);TAB(21) A$(L); 

TAB(39) "";:LPRINT USING C$; AMT(L) 

2750 NEXT L: GOTO 2169 

3000 INPUT "AT 3000. INPUT "; X$ 

3005 GOSUB 5000 

3010 PRINT X$.Y$ 

3020 GOTO 3000 

5000 REM *** PAD OUT STRINGS TO 10. 

CONCATENATE INTO Y$ 

5010 LL = LENP($): IF LL< 10 GOTO 5050 

5020IFLL= 10 GOTO 5100 

5030 PRINT "*** ERROR - MUST TRUNCATE "; X$ 

5040 X$ = LEFT$(X$,10) 

5041 GOTO 51 10 
5050FORI = 1TO10-LL: 
X$= "" + X$: 

NEXT I 

5100Y$= Y$ +X$ 
5110 RETURN 
5120 LL= LEN(X$): 
IF LL< 10 GOTO 5150 
5125 IF LL = 10 GOTO 5100 
5130 GOTO 5040 
5150FORI = 1T010-LL: 



X$ = X$ + "": 

NEXT I 

5160 GOTO 5100 

32000 REM KEYBOARD INPUT SUBROUTINE 

321 00 IN$ = "":W$ = INKEY$:W = 1 4: 

WD = 0:WS = WD:WL% = WD: 

IFFL = WDTHENFL = 1 

32105 PRINT STRING$(ABS(FL).136); 

STRING$(ABS(FL),24); 

32110 PRINT CHR$(W);: 

FORW% = 1T0 25: 

W$ = INKEY$: 

IF W$< >"" THEN 321 15 ELSE NEXT: 

PRINT CHR$(15);: 

FORW%= 1T0 25: 

W$ = INKEY$: 

IF W$<>"" THEN 32115 

ELSE NEXT: 

GOTO 321 10 

32115 PRINT CHR$(W);: 

IF ABS(FL) = WL% THEN 32125 ELSE 

IF FL>0 AND W$> =" " AND W$< ="Z" THEN 32170 

ELSE IF FL < AND W$ > "/" AND W$ < ":" THEN 321 70 

32116 IF W$> =CHR$(97) AND W$< =CHR$(122) 
THEN W$ = CHR$(ASC(W$)-32): 

GOTO 321 70 

321 17 IF W$ = "." THEN PRINT W$;: 
WL%=WL% +1: 

GOTO 32175 

32120 IF W$ = "." AND WD = THEN WD = 1: 

GOTO 32170 

32123 IF(W$ = "-" OR W$ = "-}-") AND WS = AND 

WL% = 0THENWS = 1: 

GOTO 32170 

32125 IF W$< >CHR$(8) THEN 32150 

ELSE IF WL% = THEN 321 10 ELSE PRINT CHR$(24);: 

IF FL>0 THEN 32135 ELSE 

IF PEEK(16418) =44 THEN 32140 

32130 IF PEEK(16418) =46 THEN WD = 0: 

GOTO 32135 ELSE IF PEEK(16418) =43 OR 

PEEK(1 641 8) = 45 THEN WS = 

32135 IN$ = LEFT$(IN$.LEN(IN$)-1) 

32140 WL% = WL%-1: 

POKE 16418.136: 

GOTO 321 10 

32150 IF W$ = CHR$(24) THEN 

PRINT STRING$(WL%.CHR$(24));: 

GOTO 32100 

32155 IF W$< >CHR$(13) THEN 32110 ELSE 

PRINT STRING$(ABS(FL)-WL%.32); 

32160 PRINT CHR$(15);:W% = 25: 

NEXT: RETURN 

32170 PRINT W$;: 

IN$ = IN$+W$:WL%=WL% + 1 

32175 IF ABS(FL) = 1 THEN 32160 ELSE 321 10 

32180 END 



TRSTimes magazine 5.3 - May/Jun 1992 



Page 11 



Recreational and Educational Computing 
Finding the Next Number 

(c) 1992, Dr. Michael W. Ecker, TRSTimes Contributing Editor 




Very popular in recre- 
ational math are those 
"What's the next num- 
ber" questions. You 
know the type. You are 
given something like: 1 , 
2, 4, ? You are supposed 
to find some pattern that 
links and generates the 
first few numbers, and 
then you extrapolate to 
get the next number 
based on said pattern. 



Sometimes the questions are not so obvious. Suppose 
you consider the number sequence: 2, 6, 12, 20, ? What 
is the next number now? If that is still too easy, how about: 
10,5,1, -3, ? What is the next number now? 

Let's start with the first question. If only because it is so 
ostensibly easy. 

If you said the answer is 8, then you saw the pattern of 
doubling. You must be saying: "Mike, come on now. This 
is too easy! Are you teasing us?" 

However, is it not also possible to see another pattern? 
For instance, might the pattern not be to first add 1 to the 
first number (1) to get 2, add 2 to the second number (2) 
to get 4, and therefore now to add 3 to the third number 
(4) to get 7? Is this not just as good an answer? 

For a solution, then, one need only find any pattern 
(alternatively: rule, sequence, or function) that produces 
the first few values. Then, whatever said rule produces for 
the next number is a correct answer. In fact, in 1953, 
mathematics professor Jim Householder published a 
piece entitled "Note to a Psychologist" in which he did 
something startling. He gave an explicit means of con- 
structing a formula, in advance, that not only produces 
any prescribed or given first N values, but also yields any 
arbitrarily desired result for the (N-i-1)st value. As luck 
would have it, Jim became a subscriber to my own Re- 
creational & Educational Computing (REC) publication 
some years ago. So, when I broached this topic in my final 
"Recreational Computing" column in Creative Comput- 
ing magazine (which magazine folded Dec. 1985) and 
later in my own publication (early 1986), Jim sent a copy 
of this article, and he kindly allowed me to reproduce It in 
REC later (late 1980s). 



The question "Find the next number" is a fraud, a hoax, 
a meaningless exercise. It is perpetuated by well-meaning 
math teachers who intend to find interesting puzzles. 
Unfortunately, they are evidently unaware that the exer- 
cises posed are meaningless utterances of questions not 
really well-defined. 

Here is the paradox. As we saw in the first, easy 
example, there are multiple patterns possible. So, in order 
to be fair, posers of such "next number" questions would 
have to spell out what they mean. That, in turn, would 
defeat the purpose of the question, which we may pre- 
sume to be some measurement of ability to discern a 
pattern. 

In conclusion, we really should speak of "a next num- 
ber" and not 'the next number" (notwithstanding the fash- 
ionability of the latter). 

Not all is lost; we can salvage something from all this. 
For, despite the disappointment of learning that the ques- 
tion itself is virtually meaningless - appearances notwith- 
standing - we can make sense out of this if we are willing 
to define the rules of the game. This does render this 
subject more mechanical, but at least you'll know what all 
the fuss was about on IQ and other tests. 

Let's take the example of: 2, 6, 12, 20, ? One standard 
technique is to see whether there is a constant difference 
between consecutive terms. The respective differences 
(latter minus former) are: 4, 6, 8 (from 6-2 = 4, 12-6 = 6, 
and 20-12 = 8). Hmm... No good, but note that these 
differences themselves have a common difference of 2! 
So, we can take their differences and picture this as: 

2 612 20 

468 

22 

Now we can extend this picture by working in reverse. 
Instead of working from the top down, we now addend 
another 2 to the bottom row and work from the bottom up. 
Instead of subtracting, of course, we must now add as we 
go up. This produces this new diagram obtained from the 
bottom right and working up: 

2 612 20 30 

46810 

222 

Of course, some of you may have actually recognized 
that I may have been thinking of the formula f(n) = 



Page 12 



TRSTimes magazine 5.3 - May/Jun 1992 



n(n + 1). In other words, each number is obtained by 
multiplying the term number by one more than said term: 
1x2, 2x3, 3x4, 4x5, etc.. so it is no surprise to get 5x6 as 
next number. Incidentally, this sequence represents the 
so-called oblong numbers, numbers that represent the 
sum of the first n even numbers. (E.g, sum of first 5 evens 
is 5x6 = 30.) 

Let's take the crazy-looking example of: 10, 5, 1, -3, ? 
now: 

10 51-3 
-5-4-4 
1 
-1 

Now we again extend this picture by working in reverse: 

10 5 1 -3-8 

-5 -4 -4 -5 

1 0-1 

-1 -1 

If you check, you will see that the differences of terms 
in any row do indeed generate the row beneath it, al- 
though you do have to know how to subtract signed 
numbers. If you're desperate, you can stoop to using a 
calculator or a computer, but I hope that you don't find 
that necessary! 

We can write a program to generate a next number 
under the rule that an appropriate row of differences is 
constant. In practice, this boils down to two possibilities: 
Either some row does have the same entry (as in the earlier 
triangle diagram) or we get down to some solitary number 
(as in last example). 

The program should allow you to specify the number 
of original terms, N, and input the first N numbers. To get 
term number (N-t-1), I effectively mimic the triangle ap- 
proach, namely by using a doubly-subscripted array 
A(J,K) for the entry In the j-th row that is number k in that 
row. I will omit programming details unless readers write 
to request more information on this. Just remember that 
the next number this BASIC program produces is consis- 
tent with the formulation of an eventual constant differ- 
ence. Thus, it will give 7, not 8, as its answer for our original 
question of next number for: 1,2,4,? 



10 CLS: Print "Dr. M. Ecker's 'Finding A Next Number', 

(C) 1985, 1987, 1992." 

20 PRINT 'This program will allow you to input virtually 

any number of numbers" 

30 PRINT "and then determine the next number. This 

number, of course, is based" 

40 PRINT "on an eventual N-fold difference of zero." 

50 PRINT 



60 INPUT "< ENTER > to Degin..."; XX$: PRINT: PRINT 

70 INPUT "How many numbers are given?"; N 

80DIMA(N + 1.N-H1) 

90FORJ = 1TON 

100 PRINT "Element number "; J; 

110INPUTA(1,J) 

120 NEXT 

130 FOR K = 2 TON 

140FORJ = lTON-h1-K 

150 A(K,J) = A(K-1 .J + 1)-A(K-1 ,J) 

160 NEXT J 

170 NEXT K 

180A(N,2)=A(N.1) 

190FORL=N-1T01 STEP -1 

200A(L,N-L + 2)=A(L,N-L + 1)+A(L + 1,N-L+1) 

210 NEXT L 

220 PRINT 'The next number is "; 

230 PRINT A(1.N -hi) 

As a FREE sen/ice I offer this program on disk with no 
obligation to any reader who sends me: 1 ) a pre-formatted 
diskette CTRS-SO Model 3 TRSDOS; or blank cassette tape 
for TRS-80 Model 100 or 102 laptop; or any PC/ MSDOS 
format at all, any disk size, either in BASIC or compiled to 
run without GWBASIC; or Sanyo 555; or Macintosh 800K 
or 400K); and 2) a self-addressed return mailer bearing 
your full name and address and 75 cents' postage affixed. 
In the alternative, send me just $3 alone and I'll send this 
program and four more on disk (slot machine, fraction 
addition, organ, collection completion). 

For those interested In a fuller collection of a dozen 
more graphical recreations and programs on disk for 
TRS-80 Models 3 and 4, I have a Logic Games Disk 
available for $1 plus $2 shipping. Or take above disk and 
this one for $13.50. Send orders to Recreational 
Mathemagical Software/ 909 Violet Terrace/ Clarks Sum- 
mit. PA 18411. 

Special Offer 

I'll spare you the high-pressure sell and come to the 
point. Try one year of Recreational & Educational Com- 
puting ($27) and you may have your choice of: 

• FREE, the above Logic Games Disk plus Next 
Number program for Model 3 or 4. 

• FREE, professionally written commercial blackjack 
program, Casino 21 for the TRS-80 (Model 1, 3, or 
4. tape or disk) - ordinarily $16.95, or: 

• Magic Math Plus, available with special versions for 
TRS-80, PCs, Sanyo 555, Apple II, and Macintosh. 
It Is comprised of nearly 40 "mathemagical" pro- 
grams in the TRS-80 double-volume, all menu- 
driven on five menus on a self-booting disk for just 
$9.95 plus $1 shipping (instead of $40). 



TRSTimes magazine 5.3 - May/Jun 1992 



Page 13 



If REC does not meet your expectations, you may 
cancel your subscription and receive a no-questions 
asked prorated refund on all unmailed issues, yet still keep 
your free or heavily-discounted software. 

To take advantage of this offer, you MUST mention this 
publication and mail your prepaid order by Sept. 30, 1992 
(or two months after this issue is published, whichever 
comes later). Please send me your comments, questions, 
solutions, Improvements, programs (on disk as well as 
paper), and your orders for Recreational & Educational 
Computing. Write to: 

Dr. Michael W. Ecker 

TRSTimes' "Recreational Computing" 

909 Violet Terrace 

Clarks Summit, PA 1841 1 

Until next time, Happy Recreational TRS-80 computing! 

Mike 

************************************************** 
************************************************** 

Dr. Michael W. Ecker is a Penn State University math 
professor as well as a computer writer-reviewer and 
columnist with 350 publication credits. Mike is also Edi- 
tor/Publisher of Recreational & Educational Comput- 
ing (REC) and the TRS-80 columnist for Vulcan's 
Computer Monthly, the only major computer magazine 
with a TRS-80 column. 

REC, from which these articles have been adapted, is 
in the middle of its seventh year and is available for $27 
per calendar-year of 8 issues, prepaid. It focuses on 
"mathemagic" and computer recreations. Readers are 
also invited to try a trial subscription of three issues for 
$10. 



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Page 14 



TRSTimes magazine 5.3 - May/Jun 1992 



HINTS & TIPS 



MultiDOS 2.x Error Codes 
By Jim King 

BASIC 

NF NEXT without FOR 

2 SN Syntax Error 

4 RG RETURN without GOSUB 

6 OD Out Of Data on READ or INPUT# 

8 FC Illegal Function Call: N(-#).Sqr(-#).Log(0),- 

10 OV Overflow or Underflow 

12 OM Out of Memory 

14 UL Undefined Line 

16 BS Subscript Out of Range 

18 DD Red imensioned Array 

20 /O Divide by 
22 Undefined USR function 

24 TM Type Mismatch, e.g. Integer to $tring 

26 OS Out of String space 

28 LS String longer than 255 bytes 

30 ST String too complex 

32 CN Cannot Continue 

34 NR No RESUME 

36 RW RESUME without ERROR 
38 Unknown 

40 MO Missing Operand 
42 Exit without FOR 

44 User abort 

46-98 Unknown 

DOS 

1 00 Field Overflow 255 bytes for random 

102 Disk I/O, CMD"E 

1 04 Buffer # not available, or used improperly 

106 File Not Found 

108 Bad File Mode, e.g. Seq on Random 

110 File already open 

112 Disk Read, CMD"E 

114 Disk Write, CMD"E 

1 1 6 Wrong Password/File already exists 

1 1 8 EOF encountered 

120 Drive Not available 

122 Disk Full 

1 24 EOF reached before anything read 

1 26 Attempted to access record 0/Bad PUT parameter 

128 Bad Filename 

1 30 Access mode differs from OPEN mode 

1 32 I/O buffer overflow 

134 Directory Full 

1 36 Disk Write Protected 

138 Password Protected 

1 40 Directory full ; File cannot be extended 

1 42 No buffer; File not OPENed 

144 Undefined 

146 File Not Found 

148 Unknown Error 



THE JITTERS 

By Frank Gottschaik 



My Model 4 suddenly developed the "jitters" last week. 
A couple months ago, the screen was shrinking and 
blinking. At that time, suspecting a poor power lead con- 
nection, I found It by wiggling wires to the video board and 
found the problem In the connector at the power supply. 

I pulled the contacts out of the connector and cleaned 
them with an eraser. Then I cleaned the contacts on the 
power supply pins of all three connectors. Finally I put the 
video connector in a different place. Success! The video 
was rock sollid again. 

Last week, many strange things happened. I've always 
had an intermittent boot problem with that machine, but 
now, when It did boot, two drive lights would flash and 
sometimes settle on the right one and boot. Then sud- 
denly strange characters would appear out of nowhere 
and fill up the command line! Touching some keys would 
produce a string of that character plus some garbage 
symbols. This looked serious! 

I started by putting my "scope" on the power leads to 
the mother board and got lucky right away. The 5V line 
was only 4.5V and was jittering between 4.2V and 4.7V. 
Suddenly the strange characters started appearing in time 
with the jittering. 

Having read about poor solder joints in the M4 power 
supplies, I pulled it and resoldered the connector joints, 
but no improvement. More probing with the scope 
showed me it was faulty between the connector contact 
pin and the wire to the motherboard connector. 

I preceded to pull that pin out of the connector and 
soldered the crimped connection. Success! Everything is 
rock solid again, and it hasn't failed to boot everytime 
since, for the last week and a half. 

As is the case so often, problems stem from faulty, 
aging connections. 

MENU FOR NEWDOS/80 

Model l/lll 

By Lance Wolstrup 

For the Model l/lll NEWDOS/80 devotees, here is a little 
goodie to make life somewhat little easier. The program, 
ND80MENU/BAS, reads the directory of drive :0, creates 
a menu from the directory entries, and then allows you to 
select a /CMD or /BAS file to execute. 

This is a 'shortie', but don't let that fool you. It is a good 
example that a program does not have to be long and 
complicated to do useful things. 



TRSTimes magazine 5.3 - May/Jun 1992 



Page 15 



Type in ND80MENU/BAS and enjoy the easy way of 
running programs from NEWDOS/80. 

10'ND80MENU/BAS 

20 'for NEWDOS/80 - Model I and III 

30' 

100 CLEAR 500:DIMA$(26) 

110CMD"DIR" 

120 SC = 15488 

130 FI=0:PRINT@64.CHR$(30)"CREATING MENU"; 

140 IF PEEK(SC) =32 THEN 200 

150 FOR X = TO 12: 

IFPEEK(SC + X)=32THENX = 12:GOT0160 

ELSE A$(FI) =A$(FI) + CHR$(PEEK(SC + X)) 

160 NEXT 

170 FI = FI + 1:IFFI/4 = INT(FI/4) THEN SC = SC + 19 

ELSESC = SG + 15 

180 IF Fl >26 THEN 200 ELSE 140 

200PRINT@0,GHR$(31): 

PRINT@25,"NEWDOS/80 MENU" 

210Y = 130 

220FORX = 0TOFI-1 

230 PRINT@Y.GHR$(64 + X)") "A$(X) 

240 IFX/3 = INT(X/3) THEN Y = Y + 24 ELSE Y = Y + 20 

250 NEXT 

260Y = INT(Y/64)*64 + 130 

270 PRINT@Y,"YOUR SELECTION (@-"GHR$(63 + Fl)")" 

280I$ = INKEY$: 

IFI$ < "@" OR 1$ > GHR$(63 + Fl) THEN 280 

ELSEI=ASG(l$)-64 

285 PRINT@Y,GHR$(30);"ATTEMPTING TO EXECUTE " 

A$(l) 

290 IF RIGHT$(A$(I).3) = "CMD" THEN CMD A$(l): 

GOTO 200 

300 IF RIGHT$(A$(I),3) = "BAS" THEN RUN A$(l): 

GOTO 200 

310 PRINT@Y,CHR$(30)"UNABLE TO EXECUTE " 

A$(l)"- PRESS < ENTER >"; 

320I$ = INKEY$: 

IF l$< >CHR$(13) THEN 320 ELSE 200 

THE CR-LF 

PROBLEM 

By Roy T. Beck 

I have a single printer connected to both an IBM clone 
and a Model 4P via an A-B Switch. The switch works fine, 
thank you, but the printer has a touch of schizphrenia. It 
can't be sure whether it is supposed to generate a line feed 
(LF) after every incoming carriage return (CR) or whether 
it is supposed to play stupid and let the computer send 
LP's when necessary. And that printer is not very bright, 
fellows! The obvious answer is to shift the internal DIP 
switch whenever I change computers, thus sparing the 
printer the task of deciding for itself. 

But my printer is old, and the DIP switches are buried 
inside It. If I use a flashlight, I can just see the DIP switch 



through a crack in the case, and it is impractical to shift 
the switch casually when I change computers. What to 
do? I solved this problem a long time ago, (the printer is 
about 7 years old), but I thought some of you might be 
interested in knowing how I did it. 

I examined the DIP switch carefully, and discovered it 
is simply an SPST switch, the simplest type made. But I 
certainly could not physically relocate it, as it is securely 
attached to the PC board and is part of a group of 8 
switches. Viewing it simply as a switch, if I left it always 
open, I could parallel it with a toggle switch located in a 
more accessible location. Accordingly, I bought a small 
bat handle toggle switch and mounted it in a hole in the 
plastic case. I then soldered two wires between corre- 
sponding terminals on the old and new switches. Now the 
external switch handle allows me to select between the 
two modes, and when I shift the A-B switch to change 
computers, I also move the bat handle toggle, and presto, 
everything comes out right. 

The idea is simple, costing only the price of a switch 
and a foot of wire, and my computers and printer have 
worked properly ever since I bought the clone. 

THE PRODUCER 
REFERENCE GUIDE 

from the TRSTimes vault 

The meterial featured below has been placed in the 
public domain and is presented here to help newcomers 
to the TRS-80 world getting started with the PRODUCER, 
a fine program that will write a data base according to the 
user's specifications. 

To select a command from the Main Menu, press the 
number in front of the command. Do not press 
< ENTER >. 

(1) ADD a new record to the file 

(a) Use all Screen-Oriented Data Entry techniques. 

(b) Press < = > at beginning of Field to duplicate 
the same Field from the previous record ADDed 
or EDITed. 

(c) Press < @ > in any Field to Save Record; Press 

< ENTER > in the last Field to Save Record. 

(d) Press < CLEAR > in any Field to see PROMPT 
for the Field that you are in at the time. 

(2) EDiT/Display a Record in File 

(Also REPLACE and NEW) 

(a) Enter any part or all of the KEY Field from left to 
right. E.g.: If any KEY is ROGER, you can enter 
<R> or <R0> or <ROG> or <ROGE> or 

< ROGER > . The more you enter, the better 
chance of finding the record you want. 

(b) Enter Secondary KEY in the same manner. If you 
enter a secondary KEY, then only a record match- 



Page 16 



TRSTimes magazine 5.3 - May/Jun 1992 



ing the main KEY and the Secondary KEY 
will be displayed. 

(c) if you enter no Secondary KEY then you will be 
asked for each matching Main KEY if 
"CORRECT ITEM (Y/N)?". Answer with a <Y> 
for Yes, or < N > for no. 

(d) When record is displayed, your cursor will 
appear in the first Field of the record. 

(e) You may EDIT any INPUT Fields using the Data 
Entry. 

(f) To DELETE a record, type DELETE in the first 
six positions of the KEY field and press < @ > . 
See option (b) on the Options Menu Selection. 

(g) If you change the KEY field, you will be 
prompted on exit as follows: 

(R)EPLACE, (N)EW. (E)ND? 
(R) will write displayed Record on top of existing 
Record-BTREE KEYS are UPDATED. 
Replacement is used to Update or Edit a KEY 
Field. 

(N) will create a NEW Record. This option is 
used to create Multiple Keys for the same record 
(E) will END and go back to the Main Menu. 

(3) PRINT a variety of REPORTS from Report Menu. 

(a) Up to 9 Report options will be displayed. 

(b) Press number beside desired Report. 

(c) Follow the prompts carefully. 

(d) To Abort Report in progress, press < @ > 
several times. 

(e) When SORT prompt comes up, answer 

< N > if file is same as last time report was run, 
or <Y> if changed. 

(4) OPTIONS Menu (Other Menu Choices) 

Choose any of these options from this menu by press- 
ing the number shown or the letter in parentheses. You 
may also select option from the Main Menu by pressing 
Letter. 
[1 ] (D)elete a Record. Follow carefully the Prompts 

In the Error Message Area. 
[2] (S)how a range of Records based on your 

SEARCH criteria. 

# Enter Field # to Search on when prompted. 

# Choose 1 of 7 options below for Search Criteria 

<1> EQUAL TO ## 

<2> GREATER THAN #### SEARCH FOR 
STRING FROM LEFT 

< 3 > LESS THAN ## 

<4> SEARCH FROM ANY PLACE IN FIELD 

(STRING) 
<5> EQUAL TO ## 
<6> GREATER THAN #### SEARCH FOR 

NUMERIC VALUE 
<7> LESS THAN ## 



# Enter Search information in field when prompted. 

# Select (1) for start of file or (2) for end of file. 

[3] (R)eplace contents of Field Globally and 
Recalculate 

# Enter Field # whose contents you want to 
Replace. 

# Type Replacement Information in Field when 
prompted. 

# Answer < Y > to do, or < N > not to do 
Calculations.. 

# If Restriction is desired, follow prompts, and 

refer to the (S)how Option for details. 

(5) EXIT from the Program to BASIC. 

The DATA ENTRY Commands 



RIGHT ARROW 
LEFT ARROW 
SHIFT RIGHT ARROW 
SHIFT LEFT ARROW 

SHIFT UP ARROW 



ENTER 



CLEAR 

SHIFT DOWN ARROW 



CONTROL G 



Move cursor one space right 

Move cursor one space left 

Insert space at cursor position 

Delete a character at cursor 

position 

Move cursor to start or end 

of line 

Exit and save all data 

Move to next field below or to 

right. If in last Field, Exit and 

save data. 

Display custom prompt for Field 

This is defined as the CONTROL 

KEY. 

Goto a selected Field. 

You will be Prompted for Field 

in Error Message Area. 

Duplicate in current Field the 

same Field from last accessed 

Record. 



ERROR MESSAGES in DATA ENTRY 



BOUNDARY LIMIT 

ILLEGAL CHARACTER 
RESULT TOO LARGE 
DIVISION BY ZERO 

UNKNOWN ERROR 



Attempt to go outside of range 

of allowed Fields or outside the 

limit for maximum number of 

characters in a Field. 

Tried to enter illegal character in 

Field. Cursor stays in same 

place. 

Result of Calculation does not fit 

the display format that was 

defined 

Attempt to divide by zero in a 

calculation (usually caused by 

leaving a blank Field for one 

that was to be used in 

calculations.. 

Just that, an Unknown Error. 



TRSTimes magazine 5.3 - May/Jun 1992 



Page 17 



CHECKING OUT 

mJmk. rAlv^U 

Review by Henry H. Herrdegen 




I was still looking at the announcement in the last issue 
of TRSTimes (5.2), and contemplating if this really could 
be worthwhile. An old patcher like me, and having given 
up on writing something similar to my 1 .3 PUP disk for the 
6.3.0, because of the difficulties with JCLs, I was plain 
curious. 

Then, surprise, a complimentary disk arrived, with a 
request for me to review it. Sure! One does not get the 
chance very often to put a new TRS-80 program through 
the wringer. 

Enough preamble, short and sweet: it is great. If you 
have read the announcement and the lead-in the Little 
Orphan Eighty column, then you know that it has 32 
patches and their reversals, and basically what it does. All 
64 work as promised (what else did you expect?). It is all 
written in plain BASIC, with a 9 choice main menu, and 8 
sub menus, also with 9 choices. Actually there are only 8 
for patches, as # 9 is the return choice. 

I will not try to analyze in depth the almost 700 lines (1 2 
pages printout) long program. Let's just say that it opens 
random files for the various DOS files, checks and/or 
changes the pertinent records, and so makes the 
"patches" without bothering the (slow) PATCH/CMD, or 
using the, in comparison, snail paced JGL route. And it 
does it with clever use of DATA statements for menu texts, 
unique screen manipulation and other slick tricks. 

The code is fully accessible, you can study It, and 
maybe pick some pearls for your own programming. I'm 
sure Lance wont mind, as long as you give credit where 
credit belongs. And there are some pearls to be found I So 
this will be just a description of what the program does, 
and how it will look to you on the screen. At the end, I'm 



going to put in a few pennies worth of my own opinion, 
and hope, Lance will forgive me. I have to restrain myself, 
not to sound too enthusiastic. 

During the program run the two bottom lines are taken 
out of circulation to display the name, copyright notice, 
date and real-time clock under a solid line. 

The top shows the title, and on the sub menus the 
section title, and between two lines the status of the 4 
areas it handles. That status is updated as soon as you 
make a patch by just selecting the number from the menu. 
Even if not prompted on screen, <CTRL><Q> will 
always go back to the main menu. It's a nice touch to 
select two keys next to each other. Somewhat easier(?) 
than the < 9 >< ENTER > combination prescribed in the 
menu. 

Every time you select a sub menu, you will be asked: 
'...on which drive:', and that drive is then checked for the 
proper Disk/Command version. If it is not 6.3.1, you will 
be told so, and advised to use < CTL >< Q > , which gives 
you a chance to select another drive, or change the disk. 

If everything is in order, you see the present status of 
the disk, and can choose to make one or more of the 4 
choices to change that status. It checks the patch area, 
as the ':Fab,cd = yy zz' of the normal PATCH/CMD will do, 
and if an "unexpected code" is there, will tell so, and that 
the patch is not made, and again: '--> press Ctrl-Q'. 

If ok, astoundingly, no whirr-whirr, blink-blink, but in- 
stantaneously, the patch is made. Patching with this (his- 
torically slow?) BASIC program is faster then anything I 
have seen so far. 

The ad lists the 32 possible patches (their reversals to 
normal DOS are implied), but lets elaborate a bit: 

The first Sub handles the FORMAT/CMD and lets you 
disable the Password check/prompt, set up Double Side 
formatting as default, format 80 tracks as default, and 
disable the verify. On this last one, I agree with Lance's 
remark in the manual, that this is not the best of Ideas, but 
some people like to take chances. 

The second deals with the BACKUP/CMD: disable the 
password check, back up Invisible files also as default, 
you can again disable the verify, and finally override a 
possible "backup limit", if you have one of those crazy 
disks. 



Page 18 



TRSTimes magazine 5.3 - May/Jun 1992 



Next menu deals with DIR and CAT: you can change 
the commands to a single letter, D or C, and include I files, 
or both I and S in your DIR and/or CAT as default. 

For the PURGE command, the next menu lets you 
disable the password, include I, or I and S as default, or 
make Q = N the default setting. 

In the DOS COMMAND section, you can change the 
long REMOVE command to DEL, and shorten RENAME, 
MEMORY and DEVICE to the first three letters. A boon for 
a lazy typist like me. 

Then comes a menu affecting SYSO and SYS1 : replace 
the useless ID with the KILUCMD, enable the BREAK key 
on AUTO entered with the * parameter, turn the 'SYSGEN' 
message off at boot up, and maybe most Interesting, 
change, the 'LS-DOS Ready' prompt with your custom 
message, also 12 characters long. Very valuable to iden- 
tify a patched DOS. The KILL patch leaves the RE- 
MOVE/DEL available, contrary to one patch out there 
which replaces REMOVE with KILL 

Four MISCELLANEOUS patches are next, affecting 
SYSO, 2 and 4. Disabling the DATE and/or TIME prompt, 
disabling the file password protection, and making the 
extended, 4 line error message default. If you have never 
seen it, as most "just users" will not have, it tells the error 
number besides the, sometimes cryptic, message, and 
gives some SVC and return address info. 

And last, but not least, a chance to modify the BOOT. 
You can chose your very own cursor symbol, anything 
from ASCII 33 to 191. Some seem more practical then 
others. Make it solid, boot with the clock on, and change 
to the fastest key repeat possible. 

Needless to repeat that all these custom modifications 
can be normalized from the same menus. Another nice 
touch, the odd numbers modify, the even get back to 
normal. The whole program, as well as the manual, is very 
well organized. 

The 20 page manual leads step by step through the 
program, explains in every sub-section what prompts are 
on the screen, what the patches do, what errors could 
occur and what the error message will say. The BREAK 
key is disabled during the program to force an orderly exit, 
and the last manual page gives the reason for that and 
some short technical info, explaining a few of the tricks. 

I tried very hard to trip it up, but not much luck, and 
nothing serious happened. Yes, it does accept a letter or 
symbol input at the menu choices, but the following 
< ENTER > cancels it. And you have to use the 
<CTL> <Q> in sequence, otherwise nothing happens. 
That catches your lousy typing, and if you try to patch a 
data disk or another DOS then 6.3. 1 , it tells you either that 



it is'nt 6.3.1 , or that the file (asked for) is not available. Both 
true, if not specific, depending on what disk you stuck in. 

I formatted a data disk with my 6.3.1 FORMAT/CMD, 
tried all the patch choices, and it told me every time not 
that the file was'nt there, but that it's not a 6.3.1 disk ??? 
It gives the same incorrect message for an (unlikely) 
system disk without these files, contrary to what is said in 
the manual. It checks the DOS file for 6.3.1 identifying 
bytes, and if no match, comes to this, sometimes wrong, 
conclusion, but, surprise, surprise, it puts the filenames 
FORMAT/CMD. BACKUP/CMD and SYSO. 1, 2. 4, 6 and 7 
into the directory, with zero Rec's, EOF, K's and EXT's, 
and with no date or time. That may be annoying, but not 
fatal. I dont think this is a reasonable scenario anyway. 

But . . . make something fool proof, and a bigger fool 
comes along. Any comment, Lance? 

Now, If It was the '...not 6.3.1' message, and you 
removed the disk before punching <CTL> <Q>, You 
get a message: '** CLOSE FAULT ** Drive not ready, 
< ENTER > to retry, < BREAK > to abort'. Dont despair if 
the < BREAK > wont do anything, it's still disabled. Put 
the (or another) disk back in and hit < ENTER > (the only 
active key), it brings the '...which drive:' question back, 
and <CTL> <Q> is alive again. But you wouldn't do a 
dumb thing like that anyway. None of the above goofy 
actions do any harm (other than the "extended" directory) , 
nor does it crash the program. 

My impressions: A very elegant, flawless working 
program, with excellent menu screens and with some 
valuable patches to make the 6.3.1 even more friendly 
than it already is. A very interesting and innovative han- 
dling of a BASIC program code. And a BARGAIN at 15 
bucks! I would not know how to evaluate the work and 
knowledge which went into this program, but it sure is 
more than I will ever realize. Thank you, Lance. 

I would have liked the menu choices being Inkeys, and 
am sorry that the 32 item limit (8 menus with 8 choices 
each) leaves no way to add patches which may be valu- 
able, such as 24 hr system in DIR, boot in capitals, elimi- 
nate leading zeroes at date and time input (a few which I 
cherish, and which did not interfere at all), and maybe a 
few others floating around. 

Eliminating the verify at FORMAT and BACKUP is not 
the best policy, just to save a few seconds. Are we that 
much in a hurry? So is eliminating the DATE and TIME 
input. It's so easy now, with the period on the number pad, 
and how does a DIR without date and time look like? 
Naked!! I am certain that many will find some of these 
patches of no value to them, and wish some others were 
included. Maybe Wiz Lance will come up with instructions 
how to customize his customizing program, suitable for 
less than super expert BASIC programmers? 

Keep the 80's humming! 



TRSTimes magazine 5.3 - May/Jun 1992 



Page 19 




DR. PATCH REVIEWED 

By Chris Fara (Microdex Corp) 

A tantalizing proposition are patciies that eliminate the 
"verify" in format and backup, and thus dramatically speed 
up the process. The manual warns that this should be 
done only with top-quality disks. Maybe so, but I've been 
always wondering. Having gone through thousands of 
disks, many of the cheap bulkvariety, I found precious few 
that wouldn't "verify". On the other hand, I also ran Into 
brand-name disks with a "lifetime warranty", that "verified" 
perfectly, yet files got messed up anyway. So it seems that 
in routine work, assuming properly aligned disk drives, the 
risk is minimal, and the snappy format and backup are a 
pleasure. 

Now for the clincher: the whole program Is written in 
straight BASIC. What? Can't do! The "real programming" 
Is supposed to be in assembly language, or better yet, in 
C,C-}-,C+-i-,C-F-}- + + + + + and such. This CW (Con- 
ventional Wisdom) is what apparently prompted the au- 
thor to demonstrate that yes, BASIC can do just fine. And 
indeed it does. 

As with the screens, the artistic quality is also visible in 
the code listing which is not "protected". Well organized, 
easy to read, it has a great educational value. With some 
knowledge of BASIC, one can even customize the pro- 
gram Itself. Prefer ERASE instead of REMOVE or DEL to 
delete files? Just change a few keywords in the listing. 

Being a programmer myself, I am obviously biased, so 
take my few gripes here with a grain of salt. One thing I 
found really awkward was that before displaying any 
sub-menu, the program first requires selection of the drive 
to be patched, and then goes through checking of that 
drive. I'd rather see the menu first. It might not have the 
patches I am looking for, in which case disk selection and 
checking is a waste of time. 

The program takes up a hefty 22.5-K of the disk space. 
Since all 64 routines (32 patches and 32 un-patches) 
follow nearly identical steps, a subroutine scheme could 
probably cut the program size in half without sacrificing 
any of its remarkable speed (but, as the author replied in 
defense, this would reduce the legibility of the code). The 
manual recommends copying the program to the system 
disk. But. because of its size, a more practical approach 
Is to BACKUP BASIC(INV) to the program disk. Ubel it 
"Dr. Patch", keep it handy, and stick it into any data drive 
whenever a patch is desired. 

And I really mean: keep it handy. Never mind my 
habitual fussing about details. As it stands, the program is 
useful, bug-free and, unlike some other system patches, 
completely harmless. Have fun. 



This new program, written by Lance Wolstrup, makes 
all kinds of useful custom changes to LS-DOS version 
6.3.1. It Includes a 20-page manual and is now available 
from TRSTimes ($14.95). At this Doint some people might 
be tempted to yawn: another patch program? Well, yes 
and no. Most system patches require typing of obscure 
commands with strange "syntax" and "hex" codes. It is 
easy to overlook a "typo" and the result is often disastrous. 
By contrast. Dr. Patch is entirely menu driven, so even a 
novice can use it with total confidence. 

The menu screens are unusually clean and the whole 
thing has a neat, almost artistic symmetry. On entry a main 
menu is presented with 8 sub-menus numbered from 1 to 
8. Each sub-menu has also 8 choices. Pick a number and 
the modification is done. In each menu an odd number 
changes something in DOS, and the next even number 
"evens" it back to the normal state. For example, enter 1 
to disable passwords, then 2 to re-enable. Once you get 
the idea, you can practically run the program with closed 
eyes. 

Altogether 32 changes of the system can be instantly 
done and just as instantly un-done: 

• disable password checking and the bothersome 
"backup limit" schemes; 

• set up custom "defaults" for format, backup, purge 
and directory; 

• shorten frequently used commands (such as DIR 
to D, REMOVE to DEL, etc); 

• streamline computer start-up sequence; 

and so on, too much to list it all. 

My immediate favorite became the quick change of the 
dull "DOS Ready" prompt to whatever, for instance "Hello 
Chris!". Actually this is not just a cute gimmick. Even if you 
apply patches other than from Dr. Patch, it is not a bad idea 
to change the prompt to signal a customized system. 



Page 20 



TRSTimes 5.3 - May/Jun 1992 



*** DR. PATCH *** 

BRAND-NEW UTILITY FOR TRS-80 MODEL 4 AND LS-DOS 6.3.1 
A 'MUST HAVE' FOR ALL LS-DOS 6.3.1 OWNERS. 

DR. PATCH MODIFIES LS-DOS 6.3.1 TO DO THINGS THAT WERE NEVER BEFORE POSSIBLE. 

COMPLETELY SELF-CONTAINED - MENU-DRIVEN FOR MAXIMUM USER CONVENIENCE. 
FAST & SAFE - EACH MODIFICATION IS EASILY REVERSED TO NORMAL DOS OPERATION. 



DISABLE PASSWORD CHECK IN FORMAT/CMD 

FORMAT DOUBLE-SIDED AS DEFAULT 

FORMAT 80 TRACKS AS DEFAULT 

DISABLE VERIFY AFTER FORMAT 

CHANGE 'DIR' TO 'D' 

CHANGE 'CAT TO 'C 

VIEW DIR/CAT WITH (I) PARAMETER AS DEFAULT 

VIEW DIR/CAT WITH (S,I) PARAMETERS AS DEFAULT 

CHANGE 'REMOVE' TO 'DEL' 

CHANGE 'RENAME' TO 'REN' 

CHANGE 'MEMORY' TO 'MEM' 

CHANGE 'DEVICE' TO 'DEV 

DISABLE THE BOOT 'DATE' PROMPT 

DISABLE THE BOOT "TIME' PROMPT 

DISABLE FILE PASSWORD PROTECTION 

ENABLE EXTENDED ERROR MESSAGES 



DISABLE PASSWORD CHECK IN BACKUP/CMD 
BACKUP WITH (I) PARAMETER AS DEFAULT 
BACKUP WITH VERIFY DISABLED 
DISABLE BACKUP 'LIMIT' PROTECTION 
DISABLE PASSWORD CHECK IN PURGE 
PURGE WITH (I) PARAMETER AS DEFAULT 
PURGE WITH (S,I) PARAMETERS AS DEFAULT 
PURGE WITH (Q=N) PARAMETER AS DEFAULT 
IMPLEMENT THE DOS 'KILL' COMMAND 
CHANGE DOS PROMPT TO CUSTOM PROMPT 
TURN 'AUTO BREAK DISABLE' OFF 
TURN 'SYSGEN' MESSAGE OFF 
BOOT WITH NON-BLINKING CURSOR 
BOOT WITH CUSTOM CURSOR 
BOOT WITH CLOCK ON 
BOOT WITH FAST KEY-REPEAT 



DR. PATCH IS THE ONLY PROGRAM OF ITS TYPE EVER WRITTEN FOR THE TRS-80 

MODEL 4 AND LS-DOS 6.3.1. IT IS DISTRIBUTED EXCLUSIVELY BY TRSTIMES MAGAZINE 

ON A STANDARD LS-DOS 6.3.1 DATA DISKETTE, ALONG WITH WRITTEN DOCUMENTATION. 

*** DR. PATCH *** $14.95 

SHIPPING & HANDLING: U.S & CANADA - NONE 

ELSEWHERE - ADD $4.00 
(U.S CURRENCY ONLY, PLEASE) 



TRSTimes magazine - dept. DP 

5721 Topanga Canyon Blvd. #4 

Woodland Hills, CA 91367 

DON'T LET YOUR LS-DOS 6.3.1 BE Wl[THOUT IT! 



TRSTimes magazine 5.3 - May/June 1992 



Page 21 



CITIZEN SETUP 


PUT2B 


JR 
LD 


NZ,NEXT2 
A,OFH 


;Compressed chars 






PUT2 


LD 


(MESS4 + 9),A 


;Put in place 


Model 4 - LS-DOS 6.x.x 


- Editor/Assembler 


NEXT3 


LD 


HL,MESS3 


;Single or emphasised 


By M.C Matthews 




LD 

RST 

LD 


A,OAH 

28H 

A,1 




PRINTSET is an assembly language program that al- 


TRY3 




lows easy setup of a Citizen 120D printer directly from 




RST 


28H 




DOS, or from Basic, if desired. When executed, PRINTSET 




LD 


C,A 




gives the following choices: 






CALL SHOWIT 




10 or 12 Characters/Inch (1/2) 






CP 


53H 


;Single 


Normal or compressed print <N/C) 




JR 


Z,NEXT4 




Single or Emphasised (S/E) 






CP 


73H 




Paper length (ENTER) for 66 






JR 


Z.NEXT4 




Bottom margin (ENTER for none. 




CP 


45H 


; Emphasised 


or enter number of lines) 






JR 


Z.PUT3 




Slashed 00s (Y/N) 






CP 


65H 




Get out your editor/assembler, type in the listing below 




JR 


NZ.NEXT3 




and assemble it as PRINTSET/CMD. The program should 


PUT3 


LD 


A,45H 




work on most Citizen printers. 






LD 


(MESS4 + 11),A 








NEXT4 


LD 


HUMESSe 


;Paper length 


; PRINTSET/CMD TO SET PRINTER FROM DOS. 




LD 


A.OAH 




ORG 2400H 






RST 


28H 




CLS EQU 0545H 






LD 


A,09H 




START CALL CLS 






LD 


HUBUFF 


;Set 3-byte buffer 


LD HL,0000H 






LD 


B,02H 




LD A,0FH 






RST 


28H 


;Get number 


LD B,03H 






JR 


NZ.NEXT4 




RST 28H 






LD 


A,60H 




DEC HL 






RST 


28H 


iConvert from ASC to Hex 


NEXT1 LD HL.MESS1 


: 10/1 2 chars/in. 




LD 


A,C 


;Get lower byte of answer 


LD A,OAH 






CP 


OOH 




RST 28H 


; Display it 




JR 


Z.NEXTS 


;Nul so 66 lines 


TRY1 LD A.1 






LD 


(MESS4 + 14),A 


;Put in place 


RST 28H 


;Get answer 


NEXT5 


LD 


HL,MESS7 


;Marginatfoot 


LD C.A 






LD 


A,OAH 




CALL SHOWIT 


; Display it 




RST 


28H 




CP 31 H 


;1 for 10 chars 




LD 


HL,BUFF 




JR NZ,TRY1A 






LD 


B,02H 




LD A,50H 


;Change so put new in 




LD 


A,09H 




LD (MESS4 + 8).A 






RST 


28H 




JR NEXT2 






LD 


A.60H 




TRY1A CP 32H 


;2 for 12 chars 




RST 


28H 




JR NZ.NEXT1 


;12 chars normal 




LD 


A,C 




NEXT2 LD HL,MESS2 


;Normal/Compressed 




CP 


OOH 




LD A,OAH 






JR 


Z.NEXT6 




RST 28H 




TRY5A 


LD 


A,C 




TRY2 LD A.1 






LD 


(MESS4 + 21),A 


;Set length of margin 


RST 28H 






LD 


A,4EH 


;Set for margin 


LD C,A 






LD 


(MESS4 + 20),A 




CALL SHOWIT 




NEXT6 


LD 


HL.MESS8 


;Slashed Os? 


CP 4EH 


; Normal, no change 




LD 


A,OAH 




JR Z.NEXT3 






RST 


28H 




CP 6EH 




TRY6A 


LD 


A,1 




JR Z.NEXT3 






RST 


28H 




TRY2B CP 43H 


;Compressed 




LD 


C,A 




JR Z.PUT2B 






CALL SHOWIT 




CP 63H 






LD 


A,C 





Page 22 



TRSTimes magazine 5.3 - May/Jun 1992 





CP 4EH 


:No 




LD 


HL.MESS4 






JR Z,DONE 






LD 


A.OEH 






CP 6EH 


;no 




RST 


28H 


;Send instructions 




JR Z.DONE 






LD 


HUOOOOH 






CP 59H 


;Yes 




RET 




;Back to where we came from 




JR Z,PUT6 




SETPTR 


LD 


DE,5250H 


;Get SVC location 




CP 79H 


:yes 




LD 


A,52H 






JR NZ,NEXT6 






RST 


28H 




PUT6 


LD A,01H 


;1 for slashed 




EX 


DE.HL 






LD (MESS4 + 18),A 




LD 


COOH 




DONE 


LD C.OAH 


;Do line feed 




LD 


A,05H 






CALL SHOWIT 






RST 


28H 


;Test for ptr. ready 




CALL DOPRT 


;See If printer ready 




JR 


Z,READY 






LD HL.MESS4 


;Send instructions 




LD 


HL,1700H 


;Else set cursor to 




LD A.OEH 


' 




LD 


B,03H 


; bottom of screen 




RST 28H 


;to printer 




LD 


A,OFH 






LD HL.OOOOH 






RST 


28H 






RET 


;Exlt to DOS 




LD 


HL,MESS5 




SHOWIT 


LD A,02H 






LD 


A.OAH 


;& display message 




RST 28H 


;Display a char. 




RST 


28H 






RET 






LD 


B,80H 


;Delay 


MESS1 


DEFM 'PRINTSET. Set up Citizen 120D printer' 




LD 


DE.-1 






DEFB OAH 




LOOPA 


LD 


HUOFFH 






DEFM'Vers.15. 25.04.91 M.C.Matthews' 


LOOPB 


ADD 


HL.DE 






DEFB OAH 






JR 


C.LOOPB 






DEFB OAH 






DJNZ LOOPA 






DEFM '10 on 2 Characters/inch? (1/2) ' 




LD 


HL,1700H 


;Reset cursor 




DEFB 03H 






LD 


B,03H 




MESS2 


DEFB OAH 






LD 


A,OFH 






DEFM 'Normal or 


compressed print? (N/C) ' 




RST 


28H 






DEFB 03H 






LD 


HL,MESS9 


;& blank out message 


MESS3 


DEFB OAH 






LD 


A,OAH 






DEFM 'Single or e 


smphasised?? (S/E) ' 




RST 


28H 






DEFB 03H 






LD 


B,80H 


;Another delay 


MESS4 


DEFB 1BH 






LD 


DE,-1 






DEFB 7EH 


;Set Epson 


L00PA1 


LD 


HL.OFFH 






DEFB 35H 




L00PB1 


ADD 


HL,DE 






DEFB OOH 






JR 


C.LOOPBI 






DEFB 1BH 


;Set English chars. 




DJNZ L00PA1 






DEFB 52H 






JR 


SETPTR 


;& back for another try 




DEFB 33H 




READY 


RET 








DEFB 1BH 




BUFF 


DEFB OOH 






DEFB 4DH 


;1 2 chars/in. 




DEFB OOH 






DEFB 12H 


;Normal type 




DEFB OOH 






DEFB 1BH 




MESS5 


DEFM '* * PRINTER OFF LINE * *' 




DEFB 48H 


;Single struck 




DEFB 03H 






DEFB 1BH 




MESS6 


DEFB OAH 






DEFB 43H 






DEFM 'Paper length? (ENTER for 66) ' 




DEFB 42H 


;Paper length 




DEFB 03H 






DEFB 1BH 




MESS7 


DEFM 'Bottom margin? (ENTER for none,' 




DEFB 7EH 






DEFB OAH 






DEFB 34H 






DEFM 'or enter number of lines) ' 




DEFB OOH 


;No slashed 




DEFB 03H 






DEFB 1BH 




MESS8 


DEFM 'Slashed 00s?(Y/N)' 




DEFB 4FH 






DEFB 03H 






DEFB OOH 


;Margin 


MESS9 


DEFM' 


' 




DEFB ODH 






DEFB 03H 




DOPRT 


CALL SETPTR 


;Check printer ready 




END 


START 





TRSTimes magazine 5.3 - May/Jun 1992 



Page 23 



FLOPPY DISK 
READ/WRITE TECHNOLOGY 



By Karl Mohr 




Magnetic mate- 
rials have figured 
heavily in the 
s pectac u la r 
growth of the elec- 
tronics industry. 
The reason is that 
the permanent 
method for storing 
Information in 
computers- rang- 
ing from personal 
computers to 
large mainframes- 
Is magnetic re- 
cording. In one form of the technology a rigid 14-inch 
aluminum disk coated with iron oxide is spun about its axis 
at 3,000 revolutions per minute. Such a rate of spin 
corresponds to a speed of more than 100 miles per hour 
at the edge of the disk. As the disk rotates, a 'head' with 
which to 'read' and 'write' data is brought near it. The head 
consists of a coil of wire wrapped around a magnetic core, 
which is typically a nickel-iron alloy. 

By passing an electric current through the head coil 
one can record data on the disk. The current generates 
a magnetic field in the coil, which magnetizes a particular 
area of iron oxide on the disk. That area retains its 
magnetization and so can 'remember' information. The 
process by which data are encoded on the disk is known 
as the write cycle. Information on the disk is read out with 
the same head by reversing the procedure. As the head 
moves over the disk, magnetized regions in the disk 
induce a current in the coil. By measuring the current as 
a function of time the stored information is obtained. 

Even though the process of reading and writing are 
based on simple principles, attempts to pack more infor- 
mation onto disks have proved somewhat problematical. 
As the bit density increases, the magnetic field of each bit 
decreases. In order to detect the smaller magnetic field, 
the head must be positioned closer to the disk. Unfortu- 
nately smaller head-to-disk spacings increase the proba- 
bility of occasional but devastating impacts of the head 
onto the disk. Moreover, since the surface of the magnetic 
layer is usually quite rough-on the order of 1,000 ang- 
stroms-frictlonal wear is quite common. 

To minimize damage from both sudden impacts and 
frictional wear, lubricants are applied to the disk. Of 



course, frictional wear could also be reduced if the surface 
of the disk were made smoother. To build smoother 
surfaces manufacturers of disk memories are exploring 
the possibility of exploiting thin-film deposits techniques, 
in which layers of material are deposited by a plating or 
evaporation technique. In spite of the successful history 
of inductive recording, however, the tribology of disks is 
still more an art than it is a science. 

In order to build heads that are more sensitive to 
magnetic fields, investigators have recently begun to bor- 
row materials and techniques from semiconducting-chip 
technology. IBM, for example, has introduced a head in 
which the traditional coil of wire has been replaced by a 
thin-film conductor deposited as a spiral on the surface of 
a silicon substrate. The magnetic core of the head is 
Permalloy, a mixture of nickle and iron. The head, which 
is now part of the IBM Model 3370 disk memory, can 
respond to variations in current that occur as rapidly as 
100 MILLION times per second. In addition the magnetic 
field delivered by the head is capable of recording 15,000 
bits of information per inch! 

In the long run it would be advantageous to eliminate 
the head altogether. One approach involves the use of 
magneto-optic materials: magnetic materials that can af- 
fect the properties of light. A number of different magneto- 
optic materials have been investigated over the past two 
decades. The ones currently in favor are amorphous-alloy 
films containing rare earth elements such as Gadolinium 
and Terbium and transition metals such as iron and cobalt. 
These ideas were first proposed in the early 1970's by 
persons working at IBM. Investigators in Japan, Europe 
and most recently in the U.S. have since contributed to 
the development of the materials and their use in the 
fabrication of prototype storage devices. 

Information is written onto a magneto-optic disk by 
simultaneously applying a magnetic field and a pulse of 
laser light to a spot on the disk. The laser light heats the 
spot while the applied magnetic field magnetizes it. The 
direction of magnetization of the spot is determined by the 
direction of the applied magnetic field. To read the data, 
a beam of polarized light is shone on the disk. The 
polarization of the reflected light is changed according to 
the direction of magnetization at each point on the disk. 
By measuring the change in polarization, one can access 
the stored information. 

Disk memories based on all-optical elements are also 
under development, that however is another topic! 



Page 24 



TRSTimes magazine 5.3 - May/Jun 1992 



Model I & III 
Public Domain Disks 



PD#1: binclock/cmd, binclock/doc, checker/bas, 
checker/doc, chomper/bas, cis/cmd. dduty3/cmd, 
driver/cmd, driver/doc, drivtime/cmd, mazeswp/bas, 
minibase/bas. minitest/dat, mx/cmd, piazza/bas, 
spdup/cmd, spdwn/cmd, vici/bas, vld80/cmd, words/die. 

PD#2: creator/bas, editor/cmd, maze3d/cmd, 

miner/cmd, note/cmd, poker/bas, psycho/cmd, 

supdraw/cmd, vader/cmd 

PD#3: d/cmd, trsvoice/cmd, xmodem/cmd, xts/cmd, 

xta/txt. xthelp/dat 

PD#4: cobra/cmd, disklog/cmd, flight/bas, flight/doc, 

narzabur/bas, narzabur/dat, narzabur/his, narzabur/txt, 

othello/bas, vld80x24/cmd, vld80x24/Dct 

PD#5: eliza/cmd, Iu31/cmd, sq31/cmd, usq31/cmd 

PD#6: clawdos/cmd, clawdos/doc, cocoxf40/cmd, 

dskrnam/bas, menu/cmd, ripper3/bas, sky2/bas, 

sky2/his, space/cmd, stocks/bas, trs13pat/bas, 

vidsheet/bas 

PD#7: cards/bas, citles/bas, coder/bas. eye/bas, 

heataudt/bas, hicalc/bas, life/bas, moustrap/bas, 

ohare/bas, slots/bas, stars/cmd, tapedit/bas 

PD#8: craps/bas, fighter/bas, float/bas, hangman/bas, 

jewels/cmd, lifespan/bas, varldump/bas, xindex/bas, 

xor/bas 

PD#9: bubisort/bas, chess/bas, finratio/bas, 

homebudg/bas, Inflat/bas, mathdril/bas, midway/bas, 

nitefly/bas, pokrpete/bas, teaser/bas 

PD#10: Itc21/bas. Itc21/ins. lynched/bas, match/bas, 

math/bas, message/bas, message/ins, portfol/bas, 

portfol/ins, spellegg/bas, storybld/bas 

PD#11: alpha/bas, caterpil/cmd, cointoss/bas, 

crolon/bas, cube/cmd. dragon/cmd, fastgraf/bas, 

fastgraf/ins, lunarexp/bas, music/bas, music/ins, plan- 

ets/bas, volcano/cmd 

PD#12: baccarat/bas, backpack/bas, backpack/ins, doo- 

dle/bas, dragons/bas, dragons/ins, king/bas, 

sinewave/bas, snoopy/bas, wallst/bas, wallst/ins 

PD#13: atomtabl/bas, boa/bas, chekbook/bas, con- 

quer/cmd, dominos/bas, morse/bas, mountain/bas, 

quiz/bas, signbord/bas, sketcher/bas 

PD#14: autoscan/bas. checkers/bas, craps/bas, 

ducks/bas, Isleadv/bas, nim/bas, rtriangl/bas, 

sammy/cmd, typing/bas, wordpuzl/bas 

PD#15: budget/bas, corp/bas, corp/ins, fourcolr/bas, full- 

back/bas, grapher/bas, lllusion/bas, jukebox/bas, 

ledger/bas, maze/cmd, reactest/bas. shpspree/bas, 

states/bas, tapecntr/bas, tiar/bas, tiar/ins 

PD#16: amchase/bas, constell/bas, filemastr/bas. 

foneword/bas, geometry/bas. heartalk/bas, 

hjdnumbr/bas, Igame/bas, marvello/bas, powers/bas, 

scramble/bas, speed/bas, subs/bas 

PD#17: conundrm/bas, eclipse/bas, esp/bas, esp/ins, 

hustle/bas, jacklant/bas, mindblow/bas, othello/bas, 

pleng/bas, rubik/bas, trend/bas, ufo/bas, veggies/bas 



PD#18: backgam/bas, chess/cmd, cosmlp/cmd, dis- 

tance/bas, hexpawn/bas, music/omd, stokpage/bas, 

texted/bas, texted/ins, trex/bas, twodates/bas, wan- 

derer/bas 

PD#19: banner/bas, cresta/cmd, lander/bas, medi- 

cal/bas, moons/bas, par/bas, parchut/bas, pilibox/bas, 

readtrn/bas, replace/bas, ship/cmd, solomadv/bas, 

space/cmd, survlval/bas 

PD#20: bomber/bas, bumbee/cmd, claadv/bas, 

dice31/bas, dice31/ins, diskcatl/bas, firesafe/bas, 

flashcrd/bas, hitnmiss/bas, mazegen/bas, 

mazescap/cmd, roulette/bas, seasonal/bas 

PD#21: aprfool/bas, catmouse/bas, d/cmd, escape/bas, 

header/bas, kalah/bas, mathwrld/bas, nameit/bas, 

note/cmd, photo/bas, read/cmd, syzygy/bas, 

timeshar/cmd, timeshar/doc, trace80/cmd, trsdir/cmd, 

worm/bas, yatz80/bas 

PD#22: arcade/bas, cube/cmd, eclipse/bas, Icd/bas, 

leastsqr/bas, medical/bas, million/bas, pwrplant/bas, 

round/bas, subway/bas, tapeid/bas 

PD#23: artil/bas, artil/ins, baseconv/bas, crushman/bas, 

dissert/bas, huntpeck/bas, jungle/bas, jungle/ins, mes- 

sages/bas, monitor/bas, monster/bas, moons/bas, 

ohmlaw/bas, stockpage/bas, tictacto/bas 

PD#24: baslist/asm, baslist/cmd, basllst/doc, 

cleaner3/cmd, cleaner3/doc, difkit1/bas, difkit1/doc, 

dirpatch/asm, dirpatch/cmd, e/cmd, ei/doc, i/cmd, new- 

map/bas, newmap/doc, varlst/asm, varlst/cmd, varlst/doc 

PD#25: copy/bas, copy/doc, dirpw/asm, dirpw/cmd, 

dirpw/doc, dskfmt/bas, dskfmt/doc, himap/asm, 

himap/cmd, huricane/bas, hv/bas, hv/doc, keydemo/bas, 

keyin/bas, keyin/doc, lazyptch/asm, lazyptch/doc, sal- 

vage/bas, salvage/doc,wpflt/asm, wpflt/fit 

PD#26: constell/bas, divisor/bas, frame/bas, heatfus/bas, 

heatfus/doc, hicalc/bas, mathlprt/bas, mathquiz/bas, mol- 

ecule/bas, morscode/bas, phyalpha/bas, phyalpha/doc, 

remaindr/bas, usa/bas, wiring/bas 

PD#27: engine/bas, fraction/bas, geosat/bas, 

grades/bas, julian/bas, lunarcal/bas, mailist/bas, 

metaboli/bas,musictrn/bas, perindex/bas, potrack/bas 

PD#28: chalnfil/bas, citoset/bas, convnum/bas, cur- 

sors/bas, cursors/doc, datamkr/bas, deprec/bas, 

gmenuii/bas, Iedger12/bas, menui/bas, menuii/bas, 

minives/bas, ninteres/bas, refinanc/bas, regdepo/bas, 

rembal/bas, rndbordr/bas 



Each disk is $5.00 (U.S.) 
or get any 3 disks for $12.00 (U.S.) 

please specify the exact disks wanted. 

TRSTimes PD-DISKS 

5721 Topanga Canyon Blvd., Suite 4 

Woodland Hills, CA. 91367 



TRSTimes magazine 5.3 - May/Jun 1992 



Page 25 



NOTES ON 
VISICALC 

By Jim E. King 

In order to track of the gas mileage of my 1971 VWVan, 
I wrote a template for Model 4 Visioalc, apporpriately 
called VAN/VC; the listing can be found below. 

Rows 1 through 3 are text. Line 1 tells what this sheet 
is; it has a place for the complete beginning odometer 
reading. Line 2 shows that the first 4 columns are your 
input: number of gallons, Dollar cost, and just for a check, 
the price per gallon showing on the pump. 

The instructions for calculating car mileage start with 
recording the odometer reading at a full tank. That number 
is at A4 in the sheet, and is used In many of the equations. 
The XX- In row 3 are there merely because no calculation 
is possible on only that Initial mileage entry. 

When you move the cursor to the input boxes you will 
note that the same numbers appear at the top of the 
screen. These are the numbers that you input. 

When you move the cursor into the boxes under Total 
or Delta, equations appear at the top. 

In box E5 under Total Miles you will see + A5-A4 at the 
top. This means that the program takes the VALUE In box 
A5 and then subtracts from it the VALUE in A4 and displays 
the answer in box E5. These variables are other box 
locations. As you move the cursor down column E you will 
note that the A# value increases, but A4 stays the same; 
this Is the Total Miles traveled to that point. 

Total Gallons Is a little different. F5 says + B5, the first 
fill-up. F6, however says F5 + B6 = the total in the previous 
F box plus the new. F7 says F6 + B7. 

Total $ is calculated exactly like Gallons. 

Total Miles/Gallon is a simple division. H5 = E5/F5, etc. 

Total Gents/Mile is similar: 15 = 100*G5/E, etc. 

Delta means NOT total, just the ratios for only that 
portion of the data. Delta Miles, J5 = A5-A4. J6 = A6-A5, 
etc. 

Delta Miles/Gallon, K5 = J5/B5, etc. 

Delta Cents/Mile, L5 = 100*C5/J5, etc. 

Calculated $/Gallon, M5 = C5/B5, etc. 



VAN/VC 

Ml4:@INT(Cl4/B14*10000 + .5)/10000 

L14:+A14-A13 

K14:/F$ + C14*100/L14 

J14:/F$ + L14/B14 

I14:/F$ + G14*100/E14 

H14:/F$ + E14/F14 

G14: + G13 + C14 

F14: + F13 + B14 

E14:+A14-A4 

D14:.789 



CI 4:8.34 

B14:10.57 

A1 4:21 54.1 

Ml 3:@INT(C1 3/B1 3*1 0000 + .5)/1 0000 

L13:+A13-A12 

K13:/F$ + C13*100/L13 

J13:/F$ + L13/B13 

I13:/F$ + G13*100/E13 

H13:/F$ + E13/F13 

G13: + G12 + C13 

F13:-l-F12 + B13 

E13:+A13-A4 

D13:.809 

CI 3:7.42 

B13:9.17 

A1 3: 1951. 6 

Ml 2:@INT(C12/B1 2*1 0000 -l-.5)/1 0000 

L12:+A12-A11 

K12:/F$ + C12*100/L12 

J12:/F$ + L12/B12 

I12:/F$ + G12*100/E12 

H12:/F$ + E12/F12 

G12: + G11+C12 

F12: + F11+B12 

E12:+A12-A4 

D12:.869 

CI 2:9.36 

B12:10.77 

A1 2:1 802.7 

Ml 1:@INT(C11/B1 1*1 0000 + .5)/1 0000 

L11:+A11-A10 

K11:/F$ + C11*100/L11 

J11:/F$ + L11/B11 

I11:/F$ + G11*100/E11 

H11:/F$ + E11/F11 

G11: + G10 + C11 

F11: + F10-I-B11 

E11:+A11-A4 

D11:.879 

C11:/F$10 

B11:11.38 

A1 1:1640 

Ml 0:@INT(C1 0/B1 0*1 0000 + .5)/1 0000 

L10:+A10-A9 

K10:/F$ + C10*100/L10 

J10:/F$ + L10/B10 

I10:/F$ + G10*100/E10 

H10:/F$ + E10/F10 

G10: + G9 + C10 

F10: + F9-l-B10 

E10:+A10-A4 

D10:.899 

C10:/F$7.5 

B1 0:8.34 

A1 0:1 387.7 

M9:@INT(C9/B9*10000 + .5)/10000 

L9:+A9-A8 

K9:/F$ + C9*100/L9 



Page 26 



TRSTimes magazine 5.3 - May/Jun 1992 



J9:/F$ + L9/B9 

I9:/F$ + G9*100/E9 

H9:/F$ + E9/F9 

G9: + G8 + C9 

F9: + F8 + B9 

E9:+A9-A4 

D9:.889 

C9:/F$10 

89:11.25 

A9:1250 

M8:@INT(C8/B8*10000 + .5)/1 0000 

L8:+A8-A7 

K8:/F$ + C8*100/L8 

J8:/F$ + L8/B8 

I8:/F$ + G8*100/E8 

H8:/F$ + E8/F8 

G8: + G7 + C8 

F8:/F$ + F7 + B8 

E8:+A8-A4 

D8:.909 

C8:9.14 

B8: 10.05 

A8:1043.7 

M7:@INT(C7/B7*1 0000 + .5)/1 0000 

L7:+A7-A6 

K7:/F$ + G7*100/L7 

J7:/F$ + L7/B7 

I7:/F$ + G7*100/E7 

H7:/F$ + E7/F7 

G7: + G6 + C7 

F7: + F6 + B7 

E7:+A7-A4 

D7:.929 

C7:/F$11.34 

B7:12.21 

A7:870.4 

M6:@INT(C6/B6*1 0000 + .5)/1 0000 

L6: + A6-A5 

K6:/F$ + C6*100/L6 

J6:/F$ + L6/B6 

I6:/F$ + G6*100/E6 

H6:/F$ + E6/F6 

G6: + 05 + 06 

F6i + B5 + B6 

E6:+A6-A4 

D6:.949 

06:/F$7 

B6:7.38 

A6:663 

M5:@INT(05/B5*1 0000 + .5)/1 0000 

L5:+A5-A4 

K5:/F$ + O5*100/L5 

J5:/F$ + L5/B5 

I5:/F$ + G5*100/E5 

H5:/F$ + E5/F5 

G5: + 05 

F5: + B5 

E5:+A5-A4 



D5:.959 

05:/F$11.61 

B5:11.96 

A5:530 

M4:" xxxxxxxx 

L4:" xxxxxxxx 

K4:" xxxxxxxx 

J4:" xxxxxxxx 

14." xxxxxxxx 

H4:" xxxxxxxx 

G4:" xxxxxxxx 

F4:" xxxxxxxx 

E4:" xxxxxxxx 

D4:" xxxxxxxx 

04:" xxxxxxxx 

B4:" xxxxxxxx 

A4:314.2 

M3:/FR"$/Gal 

L3:/FR"Miles 

K3:/FR"as/Mi 

J3:" Mi/Gal. 

l3:/FR"as/Mi 

H3:/FR"Mi/Gal 

G3:" $ 

F3:/FR"Gals 

E3:/FR"Miles 

D3:/FR"$/Gal 

03:" $ 

B3:/FR"#Gals 

A3:"Odometr 

M2:/FR"0alc 

L2:/FR"Delta 

K2:/FR"Delta 

J2:/FR"Delta 

l2:/FR'Total 

H2:/FR'Total 

G2:/FR'Total 

F2:/FR*Total 

E2:/FR'Total 

D2:/FR"lnput 

02:/FR"lnput 

B2:/FR"lnput 

A2:/FR"lnput 

M1:/FR"Van 

K1:20314.2 

J1 :"eter: 

l1:"ngOdom 

H1:"Beginni 

F1 :"Van 

E1:"ions: 

D1 :"alculat 

01:"LEAGE0 

B1:/FR"GasMI 

/W1 

/GOR 

/GRA 

/G07 

/XA1:A1: 



TRSTimes magazine 5.3 - May/Jun 1992 



Page 27 



DIRECT from CHRIS 

The shortest distance between 
YOU and DOS 

Review by Allen Jacobs 

Interacting with DOS has always been a problem with 
every computer system ever made. The flexibility we have 
In our choices of DOS interaction methods depends upon 
the computer hardware we are dealing with. User Inter- 
faces can range from an on-off switch or gear lever in the 
earliest systems to enjoying Star Trek's Holideck or pon- 
dering the personality of Mr. Data, himself. The latter two 
are futuristic examples of advanced user interfaces. Even 
The Federation has only been able to afford to produce 
one Mr. Data. The obvious trend we see is that the greater 
and faster the equipment available to the system is, the 
more complex, Information rich, feature filled, and elegant 
the user Interface that one can have, may be. 

In the TRS-80, our system resources put practical limits 
on our user Interface. But don't feel left out by the capacity 
of our machines. I hear that Windows applications run too 
slowly on all but the fastest '486 machines. This is true 
even when they are equipped with special speed-up cards 
required just for the complex graphical user interface, 
when It Is in high resolution video mode. My sympathies. 
It seems that a corollary to the rule that programs will 
expand to fill all available memory is that the program that 
takes up the most room will be the user interface. 

All that interfaces do Is to provide us with Information 
about the system and allow us to control It with some form 
of instructions. The tradeoff between interfaces In a given 
system, such as ours. Is that the more you have the 
computer do in the form of providing information and 
Interpreting the user response, the greater the portion of 
system resources you will require. If you ask too much of 
it, you slow it down and occupy system storage capacity. 
Therefore, an example of overloading even a high capac- 
ity system is expecting Mr. Data to understand and laugh 
at one of Captain Picard's obscure jokes. Instead, his 
response time slows, he struggles, and eventually he 
gives some diplomatic excuse, explaining why he can not 
discern the humor In the statement. That's just a fancy way 
of Mr. Data issuing a system overload error message 
through his user Interface, his personality. 

We can see that skillful allocation of system resources 
to the user Interface Is partially art and partially personal 
preference. For the TRS-80, the range of interfaces avail- 
able to us starts at the DOS READY prompt and ends with 
Deskmate. DOS READY is fast and takes up no additional 
program space, but you have to know what your choice 
of commands Is and you have to type them into the 
machine In an error free manner, repeatedly. If not, you 
will find yourself swearing at the DOS ERROR and PRO- 



GRAM NOT FOUND messages you will often encounter. 
All information about the system, including the time of day 
must specifically be requested. This form of interface is 
easy on the DOS but hard on you. 

At the other end of things, with Deskmate, you can have 
a DOS interface that takes up 384K of space on a hard 
disk (without ARC, PDS, or diskDISK), provides an ever 
present calendar, and requires that you jump between 
numerous '^wlndows" on the screen until you get to the 
one you want. The only programs I can think of that are 
more cumbersome are Multiplan for the TRS-80 and Prod- 
igy for MS-DOS. 

Now that we have established a continuum of the 
solutions for efficiently interfacing with DOS, that finally 
brings us to a nice middle of the road DOS Interface 
program called "DIRECT", by Chris, from Microdex. In its 
minimal configuration, it requires as little as 3K of disk 
space. This means that it can reside on a "fresh", unaltered 
LS-DOS 6.3.1 system disk, a single sided floppy. In mem- 
ory, it resides in the DOS overlay area so it never interferes 
with "normal" DOS programs. That feature alone can 
"save-your-bacon" after a system crash. Its instructions 
are comprehensive but can be summarized quite simply. 

DIRECT installs itself as the ECl (Extended Command 
Interpreter) which can optionally be made active so that 
DIRECT substitutes for the DOS READY prompt. It can 
also be activated by entering an < * > at DOS READY. 

DIRECT is not a 7K-14K+ point-and-shoot menu sys- 
tem such as Shell or Deskmate. They work by printing the 
entire catalog of a given drive to the screen while high- 
lighting one file at a time, directable by the arrow keys. 
When the desired program is selected, another key press 
executes the program name as if It was typed onto the 
command line. 

Instead, DIRECT is a customizable command line edi- 
tor that can store up to 58 different lines of DOS com- 
mands in menu assisted files and can transfer to any of 
the total of 36 possible menus (ie.: 0-9, and A-Z). Each of 
these can contain up to 58 command lines of its own. 

Potentially, it can require less keystrokes to call a 
program with DIRECT than with a menu program such as 
Shell or Deskmate. These programs can require a number 
of arrow key presses to get to your program if it is at the 
bottom-right of a large CAT listing. DIRECT can be edited 
to get to the same file with the press of ONE key. 

The menus, which are the entire screen except for the 
bottom line, have no automatic control over DOS. Rather, 
they are user composed information screens that remind 
the operator of the commands available within the menu 
and the keys required to activate each line. Importantly, 
command lines an any menu can call other menus, all at 
the discretion of the user. 

Both the menus and the command lines are Indepen- 
dent of each other. They are editable in a free-form man- 



Page 28 



TRSTimes magazine 5.3 - May/Jun 1992 



ner. Command line users will find this capability a dream- 
come-true. They will say, "Finally, I have a place to make 
notes and to take the time to edit that long command line 
I always hate to compose because of all the #$%& 
switches I have to set so I can't use a full menuing 
program." 

Full menu program users will find themselves hitting the 
enter key and wondering what is happening. They will wait 
for a prefabricated screen to come up. When it does, it will 
ask that they compose this screen in any way they desire, 
providing information and notes about their programs 
and/or DOS. At this point, a percent of the users will 
probably freeze, thinking that they have done something 
wrong. Only a lack of curiosity will insulate them from 
discovering the utility of the program from that point 
onward. Any slight curiosity and experimentation, how- 
ever, will reward them with a true user's convenience. 

The editor that comes with the program resides in 
another file that may be kept on another disk, along with 
any other user composed menus. Only menu "0" is re- 
quired to be present to the system. The editor is not; but 
since it is callable from the main program, it has to be 
available somewhere. 

The instructions are as well written as any can be for a 
program of this nature. Frankly, however, they will hardly 
make any sense until you actually try to run the program. 
By the time you have figured nearly everything out, which 
takes about an hour of devoted playing around, you will 
only need the instructions to determine a few syntax rules. 
These, you will immediately write to a menu to remind you 
of them. As you use the program more, you will find that 
you remember them anyway because you use them all the 
time. After a while, you will forget that the program is not 
just part of DOS and you will include it on all of your system 
floppies. If you use double sided drives you will find it more 
useful than some seldom used system utilities. In fact, you 
would consider killing them, instead of DIRECT, if you 
were short of space. 

The only three really important differences between 
writing a command line into DIRECT and DOS are the 
additional uses of punctuation. They are as follow: 

Writing an asterisk at the beginning of a line, followed 
by a letter or number, calls that menu as the current 
screen. If it doesn't exist, you are asked if you want to 
create it. The editor must be present to do that. 

If you follow a command line with one or more periods, 
DIRECT will pause and prompt you to continue by press- 
ing any key. 

If you follow the command line with a question mark, 
you may add the name of a particular file or any other 
command parameters from the keyboard, before hitting 
the enter key to execute the command. 

That's about all you have to know to get started with 
the program. Pretty simple, isn't it? 

While Chris says that DIRECT works best on a hard 
drive system, I disagree to an extent. A large hard drive 



has enough space for a full menu driven program whereas 
a "Memdisk" or "Grafdisk" system drive strikes me as the 
ideal place for DIRECT. Here, it is small enough to fit where 
a 14K "Shell" or a who-knows-how-many-K "Deskmate" 
just won't go. Yet, it can be configured to provide all the 
functionality of Shell while being tightly customized for the 
floppy application being run. In this context, I can think of 
no more ideally suited program. THAT also happens to be 
the way the majority of Model 4 systems are operated, 
most of the time. 

An interesting use for DIRECT is a quick way to create 
a prefabricated menu system for another user. It will be 
effective, but it will not be bullet proof. This is because 
pressing <F2> will always get you to DOS READY. 
However, by eliminating the editor, the choices you have 
placed into a menu cannot easily be altered by a causal 
user. 

I do have some minor criticisms about the program. It 
seems that it takes too many keystrokes to get out of the 
editor when you finish editing a menu. It appears to me 
that I am gratuitously requested to save the menu twice. I 
am not sure why I am asked to do so, but there may be a 
situation when such an action is appropriate. At this time, 
however, I can not see why. 

Also, on trying to create each of the graphic characters 
while attempting to produce a listing of all them, I discov- 
ered that you can't create every one. This problem may 
occasionally prove to be a program limitation, but it ap- 
pears to be acceptable as long as you can do boxes. 

When you begin editing from a given menu, the editor 
asks you what menu you would like to edit immediately 
after it has eliminated the number of the current menu from 
the screen. Also, the request itself does not default to the 
current screen. Therefore, if you don't remember which 
screen you want to edit, you must guess and break out of 
the procedure later, if you were wrong. This is regrettable 
since the name of the menu is retained and displayed as 
the default menu, AFTER you are done editing it. 

What is especially nice about DIRECT, however, is that 
when the machine is left alone, a screen saver blanks the 
screen, with the optional exception of the system clock. 
Depressing any key restores the current screen. It can 
also be made to beep when left alone, but I don't know 
that I have a particular need for that feature. Also, DOS is 
only that one key, < F2 > , away from any part of the main 
program. That's as direct as you can get. 

So, when space is at a premium, or like many of us, you 
simply use the DOS itself, but would like to cut down on 
the command line typing, such as when assembling, 
running, debugging, and reassembling again. DIRECT is 
your choice. It's good to have a choice. I think the more 
you use it, DIRECT will be YOUR choice. 

At $29.95, DIRECT, by Chris, can be ordered directly 
from Chris, at Microdex, 1212 N. Sawtelle, Tucson, AZ 
85716 (602)326-3502. 



TRSTimes magazine 53 - May/Jun 1992 



Page 29 



ATTENTION TRSDOS 1.3. USERS! 

ANNOUNCING "SYSTEM 1.5.", THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE 1.3. UPGRADE EVER OFFEREDI 

MORE SPEED!! MORE POWER!! MORE PUNCH!! 

While maintaining 100% compatibility to TRSDOS 1 .3., this DOS upgrade advances TRSDOS 1 .3. into the 90's! 

SYSTEM 1.6. supports 16k-32l< bank data storage and 4MGHZ clock speed (4/4P/4D). 

DOUBLE SIDED DRIVES ARE NOW 100% UTILIZED! (all models). 



CONFIG = Y/:nJ 
T1ME=Y/N 
BLINK =Y/N 
LINE^'XX' 
ALIVE = Y/N 
TRON = Y/N 
TYPE*:^fi/HA'/N 
SLOW 

CRY (parm.parm) 
SYSRES = Y/N 
SPOOL =^H/B.S1ZE 
SPOOL =N 
SPOOL = RESET 
SPOOL = CLOSE 
FILTER *PR.IGLF 
FILTER *PR. FILTER 
FILTER *PR.FIND 
FILTER *PR.LINES 
FILTER *PR.TMARG 
FILTER *PR.PAGE 
FILTER *PR.TOF 
FILTER *KLECHO 
ATTRIB;d.PASSWORD 



CREATES CONFIG BOOT UP FILE 
TIME BOOT UP PROMPT ON or OFF 
SET CURSOR BOOT UP DEFAULT 
$ET *PR UNES BOOT UP DEFAULT 
GRAPHIC MONITOR ON or OFF 
ADD an IMPROVED TRON 
HIGH/BANK TYPE AHEAD ON or OFF 
2 MGHZ SPEED (MODEL lll'S) 
COPY/LIST/CAT LOOS TYPE DISKS 
DISABLE/ENABLE SYSRES OPTION 
SPOOL Js HIGH or BANK MEMORY 
TEMPORARILY DISABLE SPOOLER 
RESET (NIL) SPOOL BUFFER 
CLOSES SPOOL DISK FILE 
IGNORES 'EXTRA' LINE FEEDS 
ADDS 256 BYTE PRINTER FILTER 
TRANSLATE PRINTER BYTE TO CHNG 
DEFINE NUMBER LINES PER PAGE 
ADDS TOP MARGIN to PRINTOUTS 
NUMBER PAGES, SET PAGE NUMBER 
MOVES PAPER TO TOP OF FORM 
ECHO KEYS to -the PRINTER 
CHANGE MASTER PASSWORD 



DATE = Y/N 

CURSOR = 'XX' 

CAPS=Y/N 

WP=d.Y/N (WP) 

TRACE ==Y/N 

MEMORY = Y/N 

FAST 

BASIC2 

SYSRES = H/B/'XX' 

MACRO 

SPOOL =D.SIZE = 'XX' 

SPOOL =^Y 

SPOOL=OPEN 

FILTER *PR.ADLF = Y/N 

RLTER*PR.HARD = Y/N 

FILTER *PR,ORIG 

FILTER *PR. RESET 

FILTER *PR.WIDTH 

FILTER *PR.BMARG 

FILTER *PR.ROUTE 

FILTER *PR.NEWPG 

RLTER *KI.MACRO 

DEVICE 



DATE BOOT UP PROMPT ON or OFF 
DEFINE BOOT UP CURSOR CHAR 
SET KEY CAPS BOOT UP DEFAULT 
WRITE PROTECT ANY or ALL DRIVES 
TURN SP MONITOR ON or OFF 
BASIC FREE MEMORY DISPLAY MONITOR 
4 MGHZ SPEED (MODEL 4"S) 
ENTER ROM BASIC (NON-DISK) 
MOVE/SYS OVERLAY(s) TO HI/BANK MEM 
DEFINE ANY KEY TO MACRO 
LINK MEM SPOOLING TO DISK FILE 
REACTIVATE DISABLED SPOOLER 
OPENS, REACTIVATES DISK SPOOLING 
ADD LINE FEEDS BEFORE PRINTING ODH 
SEND OCH to PRINTER (FASTEST TOP) 
TRANSLATE PRINTER BYTE TO CHNG 
RESET PRINTER FILTER TABLE 
DEFINE PRINTER LINE WIDTH 
ADDS BOTTOM MARGIN to PRINTOUT 
SETS PRINTER ROUTING ON or OFF 
SET DCB LINE COUNT TO 1 
TURN MACRO KEYS ON or OFF 
DISPLAYS CURRENT CONFIG INFO 



All parms above are installed using the new LIBRARY command SYSTEM (parm.parm). Other new LIB options include DBSIDE (enables double 
sided drive by treating the "other side" as a new independent drive, drives 0-7 supported) and SWAP (swap drive code table #s). Dump (CONFIG) 
all current high and/or bank memory data/routines and other current config to a disk data file. If your type ahead is active, you can (optional) store 
text in the type buffer, which is saved. During a boot, the config file is loaded back into high/bank memory and interrupts are recognized. After 
executing any active auto command, any stored type ahead data will be output. FANTASTIC! Convert your QWERTY keyboard to a DVORAK! Route 
printer output to the screen or your RS-232. Macro any key,even F1, F2 or F3. Load *01-*15 overlay(s) into high/bank memory for a memory only 
DOS! Enter data faster with the 256 byte type atiead option. Run 4MGHZ error free as clock, disk I/O routines are properly corrected! Spool printing 
to high/bank memory. Link Spooling to disk (spooling updates DCB upon entering storage). Install up to 4 different debugging monitors. Print 
MS-DOS text files, ignoring those unwanted line feeds. Copy, Lprint, List or CATalog DOSPLUS, LS-DOS, LDOS or TRSDOS S.x.x. files and disks. 
Add top/bottom margins and/or page numt>ers to your hard copy. Rename/Redate disks. Use special printer codes eg: LPRINT CHR$(3); toggles 
printer output to the ROUTEdevice. Special keyboard codes add even more versatility. This upgrade improves date file stamping MM/DD/YY instead 
of just MMAT. Adds optional verify on/off formatting, enables users to examine *01-*15, DIR, and BOOT sectors using DEBUG, and corrects all 
known TRSDOS 1.3. DOS errors. Upgrade includes LIBDVR, a /CMD driver that enables LIBRARY commands, such as DIR, COPY, DEBUG, FREE, 
PURGE, or even small /CMD programs to be used within a running Basic program, without variable or data loss. 

By special arrangement with GRL Software, 
SYSTEM 1.5. Is now distributed exclusively by TRSTimes magazine. 

ORDER YOUR COPY TODAYI 
Send $39.95 (U.S. funds) to: 

TRSTimes - SYSTEM 1.5. 

5721 Topanga Canyon Blvd., Suite 4 
Woodland Hills, CA. 91367 






. 




I 



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-■^•^^nuiii^R^ and Cables. 

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I 



4i 4i P * * 




« • • • 



• • • • • 



« • * • 



II 



1 I 



» Aerocomp Hardware is now available from MISOSYS • 

• Model I DDen Controller (DDC) $45 + $6S&H • 



Model 111/4 FDC board 
Model lil/4 RS232 board 
Model 111/4 RS232 Kit 
Aerocomp 5 Meg HD 
Aerocomp 20 Meg HD 
Aerocomp 40 Meg HD 
MM CP/M 2.2 HD drivers 



$45 + $6S&H 
$45 + $6S&H 
$50 + $6S&H 
$250 + S&H 
$400 + S&H 
$500 + S&H 
$29,95 + $3S&H 



* • • 



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: The Comsoft Group 

• Model 1/111 Action Games Special 

I All five games on a single disk for one low price! 

• YougetBounceoids,CrazyPainter. Space Castle, Scarf man 

• and The Official Frogger; all five for $20 + $3S&H 



• • • 



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II 



I'Mi 
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7779 MISOSYS QuBfierly subscriptions 

Keep up to date with the latest Information on MISOSYS 
products, programs, patches, and articles in a professional 
magazine format A subscription to TMQ will provide you with 
infomriation, news, and announcements concaming our entire 
product line and related machlneenvironments. Asa speclaf for 

new subscribers, we*il start you off with issue Vli and send 
you a complete past vdum e of four issues at no charge. Tha£!i 

eight issues fa- the price of four! Subscriptions are: S25 US; S30 
Canada; $35 Europe; S40 Australia 



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PRO-WAM Year-End Price Plunge 

If you are not using PRO-WAM on your 128K Model 4. 
you're not using your 4! You'll get a pop-up desktop 
manager with ADDRESS, BRINGUP, CAL, CARD, CALC, 
PHRASE, and more. Exportl Import across windows. PSORT 
your data files. $37.48 + $6S&H 



• • • 



• • • • 



« • • • 



Sale prices 

good 

through 

Jan 

31st. 



MISOSYS, Inc. 

RO. Box 239 
Sterling, VA 22170-0239 

703-450-4181 
orders; 800-MISOSYS 



DoubleDuty doubles your 128K Model 4 
Now on sale at half price! 

DoubleDuty divides your Mod4's memory into three com- 
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eachtheirown64Kcomputer.Getthebesttaskswftcheryou 

can buy. Our2.6 release also works with extended memory, 
if you thought you needed a second computer, think again. 
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The definitive graphics prdgram that Radio Shack SHOUl^JD have released is now, 

through the cpi!fii;e$y of author I^arr^ Pa^^ne and the hard work of Gary Shanafelt, 

available fironi TO agreiient il to igU^^^^^^t^ package at (COST. 

nor TRSTimes v^ on this venture. 

Th% ppce chai^giil^-^ M^ reprodiicing thli^llliianual, disks, and mailing ttiiiy 

The : only one profiting is YCStJ!! 







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to strange attfagtor?, f ronn special nunjfepir pjasses to com- 
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iputeir columnist gihitf math pi#eisori5r: Michael W. Ecker. 
REQ features programs, chs^(i|)fl0S.|) program teas- 



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TRSTimes on DISK #9 

Issue #9 of TRSTimes on DISK is now 

available, featuring the programs from 

the Jan/Feb, lyiaf^/Aprand May/Jun 

1992 issues: 



TRSTImM on DISK is reasonably priced: 

U.S. & Canada: $5.00 (U.S.) 
Other countries: $7.00 (U.S.) 

Send check or money order to: 



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#1,2, 3, 4,5, 6, 7& 8 



are stilt available at the above prices 



Page 32 



TRSTimes magazine 5.2 - Mar/Apr 1992